VII
GRAMMAR: PARTS OF SPEECH

THE number and description of parts of speech depends on the grammar of a particular language. They correspond partly to the parts of a sentence and are partly determined by the forms and usages of the given language. Hence in the definition of parts of speech as we have inherited them from Classical grammarians sometimes 'logical', sometimes formal criteria are used. The latter, of course, come under the criticism of logicians, but they cannot be neglected in the account of a particular language. If, for instance, a language is so constructed that substantives are each of single gender but adjectives are of several genders so as to agree with the substantives, then it is of no relevance to hold with Viggo Brøndal that the adjective has no justification in morphology, logic, or syntax. Its cases in Latin or Greek are those of the substantive but it has the additional formal property of varying gender which is not possessed by substantives. In the absence of such formal criteria, as in English or Chinese, a given word may be both adjective and a substantive, e.g. Eng. good = Ch. hao3 (OCh. kung.1 . . . Ch'iu2hao3 yu2Chu.1 'the duke sought good [relations] with [the state of] Chu', where hao3 is a noun).

Even in the absence of external marks, however, it can, I think, be affirmed that the distinction between certain parts of the sentence are respected by the parts of speech. There is a broad difference between nouns and verbs, the former abstracted from particular circumstances and named so as to enter into any context, the latter specialized by accompaniments which fit them to express the individual phenomenon. The verb may produce a verbal noun of action or agent but these retain their verbal properties in large part. The noun covers substantives, adjectives, adverbs, and may offer a basis for the creation of conjunctions and prepositions. But between noun and verb there is a frontier, marked by morphemes in many languages and by associations in English. Thus one may say 'my hand'/'I hand (it)' in English, but 'my hands' and 'he hands' have different morphemes in -s (i) plural, (ii) third person singular, and 'he handed', 'he will hand', 'he would have handed' &c., are

-187-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Aspects of Language
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 374

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.