The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832

By Keith Grahame Feiling | Go to book overview

VI
THE WATERSHED: II
1760-1765

THE reign of George III, who dedicated himself to the extirpation of party, created the parties of our modern history. Such a re-formation of public opinion must, indeed, soon have come about under any sovereign. Nothing could have perpetuated the old relation of Britain to America, or to Ireland. Any government would soon have to reckon with the political effect of our industrial revolution, while a large-scale capitalism, controlling the markets of a new empire, challenged the commercial principle of the old. Western Europe, too, was so far an intellectual unit that Britain could not escape immune from Continental revolution. Yet the speed with which a new Whig and a new Tory party were formed, and their bitter conflict, were due in great measure to the King, a man of high virtue and narrow outlook, who would never conciliate opposition or conceal a hatred, but could yet embody the single loyalties which in the hour of attack hold together a Church, a nation, or a party.

He was the child of an Opposition Court, bred in a persecution complex, cherished in a vision of Kew as a ring of light in a dark world. Whig governors and preceptors had come and gone, without impressing the youth who was being nursed up for an un-Whig future. Newcastle's secretary, accomplished Andrew Stone; bishops in plenty; mathematical Mr. Scott, courtly lord Harcourt, supple and delightful Lord Waldegrave; their influence had faltered and failed, leaving only two--the Princess-Mother and Lord Bute.

By 1758 son, mother, and friend had formulated their policy and their creed. They were well aware of their own value, and of the ease with which a wedge could be driven between Pitt and Newcastle. They began to demand promotion for their clients like Gilbert Elliot, now and then to interpose in elections, and

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The Second Tory Party, 1714-1832
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • I- The Problem and Its Conditions 1
  • II- In the Wilderness 1714-1727 13
  • III- Sir Robert 24
  • I- Fusion and Confusion 1742-1754 39
  • V- The Watershed- I 1754-1760 58
  • VI- The Watershed- II 1760-1765 68
  • VII- The Watershed- III 1765-1768 87
  • VIII- The New Parties 1768-1774 99
  • IX 122
  • X- The Divide 1782-1784 143
  • XI- The Party of Mr. Pitt 1784-1792 164
  • XIII- The Breaking of the Pitt Party 1800-1806 213
  • XIV- The Age of Faction 1806-1812 247
  • XV- Aftermath of War 1813-1820 276
  • XVI- Breaking-Point (1820-1826) 304
  • XVII- The Break 1826-1830 345
  • XVIII- Finale 384
  • Authorities 405
  • Notes 409
  • Index 425
  • By the Same Author British Foreign Policy 1660-1672 *
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