Please update your browser

You're using a version of Internet Explorer that isn't supported by Questia.
To get a better experience, go to one of these sites and get the latest
version of your preferred browser:

Ulster under Home Rule: A Study of the Political and Economic Problems of Northern Ireland

By Thomas Wilson | Go to book overview

APPENDIX
STANDARDS OF PUBLIC EXPENDITURE IN NORTHERN IRELAND

By PETER ROBSON

THE financial relations between the Exchequers of Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom have been described elsewhere in this book. It has been explained that the principle underlying existing arrangements is that of parity of taxation, parity of services. More precisely, there is to be absolute parity in the cash social services and relative parity in the other services according to Northern Ireland's special needs. In addition it has been agreed that Ulster is to be permitted to incur additional expenditure for the purpose of making up "leeway" in the social services.

The purpose of this section is to present briefly some estimates which show how these principles and their earlier variants have affected, and are affecting, the level and distribution of transferred expenditure. It must be said at this point that the notion of parity is not precise and little is known of the way in which it has been interpreted, except in a few fields. The simplest way to interpret parity is to define it in terms of equality of expenditure per head of population. This is inadequate, however, for it is in some sense parity of standards which underlies existing arrangements, and parity of expenditure will only produce parity of standards if the cost of providing a service and the need for it are the same in the two regions. It seems reasonable therefore, to interpret parity to mean that level of expenditure which will produce equivalent standards of benefit or service. This is, in fact, the way in which parity has been interpreted so far as the cash benefit in social security services is concerned. Here, conditions of eligibility and rates of benefit are identical in the two regions, and parity emerges automatically. Regional levels of expenditure are automatic reflections of differences in need.

In the field of the social services given in kind, such as the Health Service, and in relation to other public services, what is meant by parity of standards is by no means as clear. Here, qualitative comparisons and judgments of need are necessary, and the scope for administrative discretion is considerable. Actual rates of expenditure on these services reflect that discretion, and they must be evaluated in the light of what is known about the special conditions of the province.

It can probably be assumed that, taking into account the special conditions of Northern Ireland (greater sparsity and dispersal of population, geographical position, etc.), the costs of providing particular real services of an equivalent standard to those in Great Britain will be, in general, at least as high as the cost in Great Britain. It may be possible to provide some services of equivalent standard at lower cost, on account of different and more efficient methods of administration, but these cases are likely to be of limited importance.1 In

____________________
Cases in question are, possibly, the child care service and the dental services.

-212-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Ulster under Home Rule: A Study of the Political and Economic Problems of Northern Ireland
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 229

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.