Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima

By Robert Jay Lifton | Go to book overview

FORMULATION:
SELF AND WORLD

The path beyond anger is formulation. By formulation I do not mean detached theories about the atomic bomb, but rather the process by which the hibakusha re-creates himself--establishes those inner forms which can serve as a bridge between self and world. Ideology and "world view"--often in their unconscious components--are central to the process, and by studying their relationship to A-bomb mastery, we gain a sense of their significance for mental life in general. Formulation includes efforts to re-establish three essential elements of psychic function: the sense of connection, of organic relationship to the people as well as non-human elements in one's life space, whether immediate or distant and imagined; the sense of symbolic integrity, of the cohesion and significance of one's life, here including some form of transcendence of the A-bomb experience; and the sense of movement, of development and change, in the continuous struggle between fixed identity and individuation. 1 Conflicts we have discussed over issues of trust and peace, as well as struggles with residual anger, are part of the "psychological work" involved. And the internal "A-bomb philosophy" which results--the imagery of formulation--not only enhances mastery but, in an important sense, contains the mental representation of mastery or its absence.

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Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction: Research and Researcher 3
  • Hiroshima 13
  • The Atomic Bomb Experience 15
  • Three - Invisible Contamination 57
  • A-Bomb Disease Four 103
  • A-Bomb Man 165
  • Atomic Bomb Leaders 209
  • Residual Struggles: Trust, Peace, and Mastery 253
  • Perceiving America 317
  • Formulation: Self and World 367
  • Creative Response: 1) "A-Bomb Literature" 397
  • Creative Response: 2) Artistic Dilemmas Eleven 451
  • The Survivor Twelve 479
  • Appendix 543
  • Notes 557
  • Index 577
  • List of Survivors Quoted 593
  • About the Author 595
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