Markets, States, and Democracy: The Political Economy of Post-Communist Transformation

By Beverly Crawford | Go to book overview
Save to active project
tween the emphasis on the individual and his rights on the one hand, and on the nation and national independence as the highest goal on the other." Quoted in Abraham Brumberg , "Not So Free at Last," the New York Review of Books, October 22, 1992, p. 61.
3.
For example, 45 percent of all metalworking equipment in the Soviet Union was produced in non-machine-building enterprises, and 84 percent of machine-building enterprises produced their own forgings; 65 percent produced their own metal hardware; and 76 percent produced their own stock. See "The Best of All Monopoly Profits" in the Economist, August 11, 1990, p. 67.
4.
This is particularly the case when markets are underdeveloped. In market economies, opposition is more likely to be directed against the employer than against the state.
5.
Although the EC agreed in 1991 to a gradual process of trade liberalization vis-à-vis Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, to be completed within a five-year period, sensitive sectors like agriculture were omitted from the agreement. In November 1992, for example, the EC imposed antidumping duties on steel imported from Croatia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. See "Dumping Duties Anger Eastern Europe," the Financial Times, November 20, 1992. See also Richard W. Stevenson, "East Europe Says Barriers to Trade Hurt Its Economies," the New York Times, January 25, 1993, pp. A1 and C8.
6.
An alternative version of gradualism is that discussed at the beginning of this chapter: the sequencing of economic and political liberalization so that markets are created under authoritarian regimes and democracy is gradually introduced later. As noted at the outset, this version of gradualism is not generally politically feasible in most post-communist societies and not considered legitimate in most scholarly discourse on post-communist transformation. Nonetheless, as the above example of Ukraine and as trends in other post- Soviet regions illustrate, authoritarian regimes may indeed emerge to push through market reforms.

References
Akerlof George; Andrew Rose; Janet Yellen; and Helga Hessenius. 1991. "East Germany in from the Cold: The Economic Aftermath of Currency Union." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: 67.
Aslund Anders. 1989. Gorbachev's Struggle for Economic Reform. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Borhi Laszlo. 1993. "East European Security in the Post-Bipolar System." In European Dilemmas After Maastricht, Beverly Crawford and Peter W. Schulze, eds., 263-272. Berkeley: International and Area Studies.
Buchanan James M., and Robert D. Tollison, eds. 1972. Theory of Public Choice: Political Application of Economics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Burawoy Michael, and Pavel Krotov. 1992. "The Soviet Transition from Socialism to Capitalism: Worker Control and Economic Bargaining in the Wood Industry." American Sociological Review 57 (February): 16-38.
Chirot Daniel, ed. 1989. The Origins of Backwardness in Eastern Europe: Economics and Politics from the Middle Ages Until the Early Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.

-39-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Markets, States, and Democracy: The Political Economy of Post-Communist Transformation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 278

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?