Nomads and Commissars: Mongolia Revisited

By Owen Lattimore | Go to book overview

7
The Worst Years

FOLLOWING THE EXPROPRIATION of 669 noble families in 1929, the property of another 837 households was expropriated in 1930-31, including the property of 205 high ecclesiastical figures. And this time, ominously, 711 heads of households were put to death or imprisoned, on the accusation of having opposed the power of the state. On the one hand, the confiscations gave the revolutionaries a capital fund of livestock to distribute to their supporters, the poorest herdsmen, and the co-operatives. On the other hand, the policy of redoubled confiscation, accompanied by the execution of opponents, defines the period of what Mongol and Russian writers now call Left Deviation, from 1929 to 1932. To the term "deviation" the Mongol writers often add the terms "mistake" and "excess."

Elated by their success in rooting out the Rightists from the Party headquarters and the Central Government in the capital city without armed opposition, the members of the "Rural Opposition" returned to the

-122-

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Nomads and Commissars: Mongolia Revisited
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Introduction xi
  • 1- The Then and the Now 1
  • 2- "Mongolia's Lovely Land" 16
  • 3- Nomads and Their History 31
  • 4- Autonomous Mongolia: the Years Of Frustration 50
  • 5- A Revolution of Shepherds 75
  • 6- The Real Revolution Begins 92
  • 7- The Worst Years 122
  • 8- The Choibalsang Years 148
  • Development, Transformation, Acceleration 170
  • 10- Horseback is All Right 202
  • A Note on Sources and Supplementary Reading 223
  • Index 231
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