Clutterbuck, pp. 115-16. For a discussion and description of army and police
operations, see also Arthur Campbell, Jungle Green ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1953), pp. 26-27, 144, and 298.
See Short, p. 370; see pp. 369-71 for a discussion of the Royal Air Force and Royal
Australian Air Force roles in the emergency. See also Jackson, chapters 10 and 11.
Clutterbuck, p. 164. The author discusses the role of air power in Malaya in Chapter
18, pp. 156-64.
Raphael Littauer and
Norman Uphoff, eds., The Air War in Indochina, rev. ed.
( Boston: Beacon Press, 1972), pp. 212-13.
Federation of Malaya, Federation Plan for the Elimination of the Communist
Organization and Armed Forces in Malaya, May 24, 1950 (hereafter referred to as The
Briggs Plan), pp. 2-3. See also Short, pp. 231-53.
Adapted from The Briggs Plan, pp. 2-3.
Clutterbuck, pp. 58-59. See also C. C. Too, "Some Salient Features in the Experience
in Defeating Communism in Malaya, with Particular Regard to the Method of New
Villages." Paper presented at the International Seminar on Communism in Asia, Korea, June
19-25, 1966, p. 11.
Clutterbuck, p. 56. For an account of SWEC operations and the army role, see M. C.A. Henniker
, Red Shadow over Malaya ( London: Blackwood, 1955). See also Campbell, p. 26.
There was much criticism of Diem regarding the voting procedures. Although it was
expected that Diem would receive the necessary votes, his brother, Nhu, organized and
manipulated the election, thereby giving Diem an overwhelming majority. Diem received
over 5.7 million votes and Bao Dai 63,000. Diem received 98.2 percent of the votes cast.
See Robert Scigliano, South Vietnam: Nation Under Stress ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963), p. 23.
Republic of Vietnam, The Secretariat of State for Information, The Constitution of
the Republic of Vietnam, Saigon, 1966. See Nghiem Dang, Viet-Nam: Politics and Public
Administration ( Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1966), pp. 78-119, for a detailed
examination of the central government to include a study of the various ministries and
directorates. See also J. A.C. Grant, "The Vietnam Constitution of 1956", American Political
Science Review, vol. 56 ( June 1958), pp. 437-62 and Bernard B. Fall, The Two Viet-Nams:
A Political and Military Analysis, 2nd rev. ed. ( New York: Praeger, 1967), pp. 259-65.
Robert Shaplen, The Lost Revolution: The U.S. in Vietnam 1946-1966, rev. ed. ( New
York: Harper & Row, 1966), p. 133.
These figures are based on the movement's own records and cannot be verified from
For a discussion of the party system and development of groups, see Scigliano, pp. 75-91 and 172-76. See also Joseph Buttinger, Vietnam: A Dragon Embattled, vol. 2, Vietnam
at War ( New York: Praeger, 1967).
Bui Diem with
David Chanoff, In the Jaws of History ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), p. 91.
Adapted from Harvey H. Smith, et al., Area Handbook for South Vietnam ( Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 1967), pp. 204, 434, 436.
Air Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky "came to power on June 9, 1965, after which the civilian
leadership... resigned." Smith, et al., p. 203.
For a discussion of police functions in counterrevolutions, see Dennis J. Duncanson, "The Police Functions and Its Problems", in
Dennis J. Duncanson,
Richard A. Yudkin, and