The Anthropology of Medicine: From Culture to Method

By Lola Romanucci-Ross; Daniel E. Moerman et al. | Go to book overview
control). Infectious epidemics like AIDS still remind us of our species' vulnerability in evolution's cosmic game of chance.
APPENDIX: SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF ANIMAL VIRUS FAMILIES
Viruses are classified according to morphology and serology rather than by mode of transmission, target organ, or type of disease.
Adenoviridae. Nonenveloped, icosahedral double-strand DNA viruses that replicate in cell nuclei. Associated with respiratory infections with prolonged latency in many mammals (Genus Mastadenovirus) and birds (Aviadenovirus). Some produce tumors.
Arenaviridae. Genus Arenavirus: Spherical enveloped viruses with segmented singlestrand RNA genomes that replicate in the cytoplasm and mature by budding from the plasma membrane. Associated with chronic inapparent infections in rodents.
Bunyaviridae. Over 200 roughly spherical, enveloped arboviruses, with tubular nucleocapsids, single-strand RNA in three circular segments that replicate in the cytoplasm and mature by budding from intracytoplasmic membranes. Consists of the genus Bunyavirus and others as yet unclassified. All multiply in and are transmitted by arthropods.
Coronaviridae. Genus Coronavirus: Spherical enveloped single-strand RNA viruses with tubular nucleocapsids that replicate in the cytoplasm, bud from intracytoplasmic membranes, and cause respiratory disease in a variety of animals.
Herpesviridae. Enveloped, icosahedral, double-strand DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus and bud from the nuclear membrane. Associated with latent or persistent infections in many animals and often cause a vesicular rash; some are oncogenic.
Iridovidae. Genus Iridovirus: Large, nonenveloped, icosahedral, double-strand DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. Include insect iridescent viruses and viruses of fish, amphibians, and African swine fever. Vertebrate iridoviruses are enveloped.
Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenzavirus: Spherical enveloped viruses with segmented single-strand RNA and tubular capsids that multiply in the cytoplasm and mature by budding from the plasma membrane. Important cause of respiratory disease in animals and human beings.
Papovaviridae. Nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses with circular, double-strand DNA that multiply relatively slowly in the nucleus. Cause latent and chronic infections and tumors, mostly benign, in a variety of animals if the viral genome becomes integrated into host cell DNA. Genera Papillomavirus (causative agents of warts) and Polyomavirus (oncogenic viruses of primates, mice, rabbits).
Paramyxoviridae. Genera Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, and Morbillivirus: Viruses similar to the Orthomyxoviridae, except the RNA genome is in one piece and does not recombine. Associated with respiratory disease and skin rashes.
Parvoviridae. Small, icosahedral, single-strand DNA viruses that multiply in the nucleus. Genera Parvovirus (many rodent and other viruses), Densovirus (in insects), and

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