Other musicians visiting England included John Lee Hooker, Champion Jack Dupree, Little Walter, Buddy Guy, Memphis Slim, Sonny Terry, and Brownie McGhee. See Brunning, Blues, 166-98; and Groom, The Blues Revival, 7-24 and 98-105.
See Brunning, Blues, 12; Guitar Player 17/ 8 ( Aug. 1983): 41; Hatch and
Blues to Rock, 103.
See Brunning, Blues; Hatch and
Millward, From Blues to Rock, 94-107; Cohn, Rock
From the Beginning, 164-87; and Middleton, Pop Music and Blues, 187-209. Although the
British groups were by far the most popular, many American white bands in the 1960s were
also playing the same repertoire of blues songs in transformed settings: Paul Butterfield and
the Butterfield Blues Band with Michael Bloomfield and Elvin Bishop ( 1963), Captain Beefheart ( 1964), the Sparrow (later Steppenwolf, 1964), the Blues Project ( 1965), the Doors
( 1965), the Grateful Dead ( 1965), Jefferson Airplane ( 1965), Canned Heat ( 1966), the Steve
Miller Band ( 1966), Santana ( 1967), Bob Dylan, John Hammond Jr., and Janis Joplin. See Bane, White Boy Singin' the Blues, 182-96, 197-204, and 213-27; Mary Ellison, Extensions of
the Blues ( London: John Calder, 1989), 51-106; and Hatch and
Millward, From Blues to Rock, 107-15.
Bane, White Boy Singin' the Blues, 199-201; and Middleton, Pop Music and the Blues, 227-51.
Harry Shapiro, Eric Clapton: Lost in the Blues ( New York: Da Capo Press, 1992), 74.
Charles Keil ( Urban Blues [ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966]) has compared Willie Dixon's recording of "Little Red Rooster," which sold 20,000 copies, to the Rolling Stones' version, a close cover, which sold 500,000 copies. Keil posits that the Stones'
success stemmed from retaining the black blues style but combining it with the contemporary image of punk nonconformity.
See Groom, The Blues Revival. Freddie King has credited Leon Russell, Clapton, John
Mayall, Johnny Winter, Michael Bloomfield, Paul Butterfield, and John Hammond for the
Much writing on this period notes that black audiences avoided blues and bluesbased rock, instead moving on to soul music in the 1960s.
For Cream, see Hatch and
Millward, From Blues to Rock, 104-6; Frank Kofsky, "The
Cream: An Interview with Eric Clapton", in Rock Giants, ed.
Pauline Rivelli and
( New York: World Publishing Company, 1967); and Richard Middleton, Pop Music and the
Blues, 247-49. For Bruce, see Chris Jisi, "Jack Bruce and Billy Sheehan: The Face of the Bass", Guitar World 10/ 4 ( April 1989): 34. For Clapton, see Brunning, Blues, 30-49; Ray Coleman, Clapton! ( New York: Warner Books, 1985); Robert Palmer, "Eric Clapton", Rolling Stone, 20
June 1985; reprinted in 15 Oct. 1992:126-28; and Shapiro, Eric Clapton. See also Clapton features in Guitar for the Practising Musician, "Blues Classics Vol. I" (Summer 1989): 50; Guitar
Player 10/ 8 ( Aug. 1976) and 19/7 ( 1986); Guitar World 10/ 12 ( Dec. 1989); and Masters of Rock 8/ 1 (Spring 1992). Clapton himself wrote an essay, "Discovering Robert Johnson", which
appears in the booklet that accompanies Robert Johnson: The Complete Recordings, Columbia
C2K-46222 ( 1990), 22-23.
The rock trio format was relatively new; other trios were Rory Gallagher's band Taste
( 1965) (see Brunning, Blues, 236), the Jimi Hendrix Experience ( 1967), and, in the United
States, Blue Cheer ( 1966).
Bruce claimed that Cream only started doing its extended improvisations after hearing the long concert evenings provided by groups like the Grateful Dead on the West Coast in 1967. See "Jack Bruce", Guitar World 10/ 4 ( Apr. 1989): 34. Clapton had had experience with
extended improvisations in the Yardbirds; see Shapiro, Eric Clapton, 44.
18. While I have tried to be comprehensive in the list given in figure 3.1, it is undoubtedly
incomplete; nonetheless it at least gives some idea of the extent of Cream's reworkings of