Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis

By John Covach; Graeme M. Boone | Go to book overview
7.
Other musicians visiting England included John Lee Hooker, Champion Jack Dupree, Little Walter, Buddy Guy, Memphis Slim, Sonny Terry, and Brownie McGhee. See Brunning, Blues, 166-98; and Groom, The Blues Revival, 7-24 and 98-105.
8.
See Brunning, Blues, 12; Guitar Player 17/ 8 ( Aug. 1983): 41; Hatch and Millward, From Blues to Rock, 103.
9.
See Brunning, Blues; Hatch and Millward, From Blues to Rock, 94-107; Cohn, Rock From the Beginning, 164-87; and Middleton, Pop Music and Blues, 187-209. Although the British groups were by far the most popular, many American white bands in the 1960s were also playing the same repertoire of blues songs in transformed settings: Paul Butterfield and the Butterfield Blues Band with Michael Bloomfield and Elvin Bishop ( 1963), Captain Beefheart ( 1964), the Sparrow (later Steppenwolf, 1964), the Blues Project ( 1965), the Doors ( 1965), the Grateful Dead ( 1965), Jefferson Airplane ( 1965), Canned Heat ( 1966), the Steve Miller Band ( 1966), Santana ( 1967), Bob Dylan, John Hammond Jr., and Janis Joplin. See Bane, White Boy Singin' the Blues, 182-96, 197-204, and 213-27; Mary Ellison, Extensions of the Blues ( London: John Calder, 1989), 51-106; and Hatch and Millward, From Blues to Rock, 107-15.
10.
Bane, White Boy Singin' the Blues, 199-201; and Middleton, Pop Music and the Blues, 227-51.
11.
Harry Shapiro, Eric Clapton: Lost in the Blues ( New York: Da Capo Press, 1992), 74.
12.
Charles Keil ( Urban Blues [ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966]) has compared Willie Dixon's recording of "Little Red Rooster," which sold 20,000 copies, to the Rolling Stones' version, a close cover, which sold 500,000 copies. Keil posits that the Stones' success stemmed from retaining the black blues style but combining it with the contemporary image of punk nonconformity.
13.
See Groom, The Blues Revival. Freddie King has credited Leon Russell, Clapton, John Mayall, Johnny Winter, Michael Bloomfield, Paul Butterfield, and John Hammond for the blues revival.
14.
Much writing on this period notes that black audiences avoided blues and bluesbased rock, instead moving on to soul music in the 1960s.
15.
For Cream, see Hatch and Millward, From Blues to Rock, 104-6; Frank Kofsky, "The Cream: An Interview with Eric Clapton", in Rock Giants, ed. Pauline Rivelli and Robert Levin ( New York: World Publishing Company, 1967); and Richard Middleton, Pop Music and the Blues, 247-49. For Bruce, see Chris Jisi, "Jack Bruce and Billy Sheehan: The Face of the Bass", Guitar World 10/ 4 ( April 1989): 34. For Clapton, see Brunning, Blues, 30-49; Ray Coleman, Clapton! ( New York: Warner Books, 1985); Robert Palmer, "Eric Clapton", Rolling Stone, 20 June 1985; reprinted in 15 Oct. 1992:126-28; and Shapiro, Eric Clapton. See also Clapton features in Guitar for the Practising Musician, "Blues Classics Vol. I" (Summer 1989): 50; Guitar Player 10/ 8 ( Aug. 1976) and 19/7 ( 1986); Guitar World 10/ 12 ( Dec. 1989); and Masters of Rock 8/ 1 (Spring 1992). Clapton himself wrote an essay, "Discovering Robert Johnson", which appears in the booklet that accompanies Robert Johnson: The Complete Recordings, Columbia C2K-46222 ( 1990), 22-23.
16.
The rock trio format was relatively new; other trios were Rory Gallagher's band Taste ( 1965) (see Brunning, Blues, 236), the Jimi Hendrix Experience ( 1967), and, in the United States, Blue Cheer ( 1966).
17.
Bruce claimed that Cream only started doing its extended improvisations after hearing the long concert evenings provided by groups like the Grateful Dead on the West Coast in 1967. See "Jack Bruce", Guitar World 10/ 4 ( Apr. 1989): 34. Clapton had had experience with extended improvisations in the Yardbirds; see Shapiro, Eric Clapton, 44.
18.
While I have tried to be comprehensive in the list given in figure 3.1, it is undoubtedly incomplete; nonetheless it at least gives some idea of the extent of Cream's reworkings of

-89-

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Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Notes ix
  • Notes xi
  • Contents xv
  • Contributors xvii
  • 1: Progressive Rock, "Close to the Edge," and the Boundaries of Style 3
  • Notes 25
  • 2: After Sundown the Beach Boys' Experimental Music 33
  • Notes 54
  • Notes 59
  • Notes 89
  • Notes 111
  • 5: Swallowed by A Song Paul Simon's Crisis of Chromaticism 113
  • 6 155
  • Notes 166
  • Notes 171
  • Notes 206
  • Index 211
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