Executive Control Processes in Reading

By Bruce K. Britton; Shawn M. Glynn | Go to book overview

1
EXECUTIVE CONTROL IN READING COMPREHENSION

Richard K. Wagner Florida State University

Robert J. Sternberg Yale University

Provided we have written a chapter that is to some degree comprehensible (a wildly questionable assumption, we admit!), there are two obvious prerequisites to an individual's ability to comprehend it. First, the individual must have mastered the basic decoding skills that serve to attach meaning to written symbols, including letters, numbers, and words. Mastery of these decoding operations is, of course, absolutely prerequisite to reading of any kind. Second, the individual must have access to relevant "world knowledge" so as to interpret and evaluate the presented information in a meaningful way. We read, understand, and remember material that we can relate to prior knowledge much differently than we do material that bears little relation to anything we know about ( Bransford & Johnson, 1972; Britton, Holdredge, Curry, & Westbrook, 1979; Dooling & Lachman, 1971; Gardner & Schumacher, 1977). Although these prerequisites may suffice for at least rudimentary comprehension, in our view there is an additional prerequisite of truly skilled comprehension of written material: the ability to determine how and where to apply one's reading resources in order to maximally reach one's comprehension goals in a given situation.

We view the intelligent application of one's reading resources, given the nature of one's comprehension task and one's text, as an important facet of executive control of reading, and of reading comprehension more generally. We distinguish three constituent parts of executive control of reading: (a) devising or accessing previously devised strategies for optimal allocation of reading time and effort, given one's reading goals and text. (b) implementing one's strategies, in a manner that does not disrupt

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Executive Control Processes in Reading
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xviii
  • Reference xviii
  • 1 - Executive Control in Reading Comprehension 1
  • Acknowledgments 19
  • References 21
  • 2 - Reading and Writing for Electronic Journals 23
  • Acknowledgments 51
  • References 53
  • 3 - Typography and Executive Control Processes in Reading 57
  • Acknowledgments 76
  • References 77
  • 4 - Typography and Reading Strategy 81
  • References 105
  • 5 - Executive Control in Studying 107
  • References 142
  • 6 - The Activation and Use of Scripted Knowledge in Reading About Routine Activities 145
  • Appendix 172
  • References 175
  • 7 - Knowledge Acquisition for Application: Cognitive Flexibility and Transfer in Complex Content Domains 177
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 198
  • 8 - Instructional Variables That Influence Cognitive Processes During Reading 201
  • References 215
  • 9 - How Is Reading Time Influenced by Knowledge-Based Inferences and World Knowledge? 217
  • Acknowledgments 249
  • References 250
  • 10 - Remembering Reading Operations with and Without Awareness 253
  • Acknowledgments 274
  • References 275
  • 11 - Characterizing the Processing Units of Reading Effects of Intra- and Interword Spaces in A Letter Detection Task 279
  • Acknowledgments 294
  • References 295
  • Author Index 297
  • Subject Index 305
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