Executive Control Processes in Reading

By Bruce K. Britton; Shawn M. Glynn | Go to book overview

the relevant variability in the knowledge domain. Systems of instruction must be developed that produce knowledge that can be flexibly adapted to the wide variety of new situations to which it will need to be applied, even at some additional early cost.

We know of no area of human endeavor that lacks an ill-structured aspect. Success in ill-structured areas tends to come only with a considerable accumulation of actual case experience. Application of the learning principles we have proposed has the potential to take material that is either taught poorly or not taught at all (and thus left to the vagaries of haphazard acquisition from "experience" over long periods of time), and, for the first time, make that material directly instructable.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported in part by Contract No. 400-81-0030 from the National Institute of Education and by Contract No. MDA903-86-K-0443 from the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The senior author would like to express his gratitude to Dr. Paul Feltovich for many helpful discussions related to the topic of this chapter. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Rand J. Spiro, Center for the Study of Reading, 51 Gerty Dr., Champaign, IL 61820.


REFERENCES

Anderson J. R. ( 1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Anderson R. C. ( 1977). "The notion of schema and the educational enterprise". In R. C. Anderson , R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Anderson R. C., Spiro R. J., & Anderson M. C. ( 1978). "Schemata as scaffolding for the representation of information in discourse". American Educational Research Journal, 15, 433-440.

Anderson J. R., Kline P. G., & Beasley C. M. ( 1979). "A general learning theory and its applications to schema abstraction". In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 13). New York: Academic Press.

Ausubel D. P. ( 1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Barsalou L. W. (in press). "The instability of graded structure: Implications for the nature of concepts". In U. Neisser (Ed.), Concepts reconsidered: The ecological and intellectual bases of categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bartlett F. C. ( 1932). Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bransford J. B. ( 1979). Human cognition: Learning, understanding, and remembering. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Britton B. K., & Black J. B. ( 1985) Understanding expository text. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brown A. L., Campione J. C., & Day J. ( 1981). "Learning to learn: On training students to learn from texts". Educational Researcher, 10, 14-21.

Carbonell J. G. ( 1983). "Derivational analogy in problem solving and knowledge acquisition". Proceedings of the International Machine Learning Workshop, Champaign, IL.

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Executive Control Processes in Reading
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xviii
  • Reference xviii
  • 1 - Executive Control in Reading Comprehension 1
  • Acknowledgments 19
  • References 21
  • 2 - Reading and Writing for Electronic Journals 23
  • Acknowledgments 51
  • References 53
  • 3 - Typography and Executive Control Processes in Reading 57
  • Acknowledgments 76
  • References 77
  • 4 - Typography and Reading Strategy 81
  • References 105
  • 5 - Executive Control in Studying 107
  • References 142
  • 6 - The Activation and Use of Scripted Knowledge in Reading About Routine Activities 145
  • Appendix 172
  • References 175
  • 7 - Knowledge Acquisition for Application: Cognitive Flexibility and Transfer in Complex Content Domains 177
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 198
  • 8 - Instructional Variables That Influence Cognitive Processes During Reading 201
  • References 215
  • 9 - How Is Reading Time Influenced by Knowledge-Based Inferences and World Knowledge? 217
  • Acknowledgments 249
  • References 250
  • 10 - Remembering Reading Operations with and Without Awareness 253
  • Acknowledgments 274
  • References 275
  • 11 - Characterizing the Processing Units of Reading Effects of Intra- and Interword Spaces in A Letter Detection Task 279
  • Acknowledgments 294
  • References 295
  • Author Index 297
  • Subject Index 305
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