OUR EARLIER COLLEGES: COURSES OF STUDY -- ENGLISH COMPOSITION AND PUBLIC SPEAKING -- DEBATING SOCIETIES
THE requisites for college entrance in early times are treated in Chapter XIX. We speak here only of the course of studies in the colleges themselves. At first the Harvard course was divided into three classes, known as the sophisters, sophomores (or sophimores) and freshmen. About 1654 the sophisters were divided into senior sophisters and junior sophisters, and those names were used in the Harvard catalogue until 1850, after which the names senior class and junior class were adopted. The names senior sophisters and junior sophisters were used in the Yale rules and laws until 1835, and then dropped.
At first a three-year course.
At first it was the custom to assign each class to a particular tutor who taught it in everything, and primarily had entire charge of its absences, excuses and other discipline. As already shown, every one must attend morning and evening prayers in "his tutor's" room; and no one could go out of Cambridge without "his tutor's leave"; and in case of doubt on any subject, the students must inquire "modestly of their tutors." Thus each class of these young boys was under the control and guidance of a single tutor, very much as the pupils in a day-school are in charge of one teacher, who hears recitations, preserves order and has control of all the children in a particular grade or room. This custom continued in Harvard until 1766.
Each class under a single tutor.
As new or higher subjects were introduced, there was frequently an extra or further charge for tuition payable directly to the teacher. This was forbidden in the foundation of Harvard's first professorship, that of the Hollis Chair of Divinity, 1722, but expressly allowed four years later in the foundation of the Hollis Chair of Mathematics, except as to the divinity students. For the other
Extra fees for extra studies.