Decentralizing Urban Policy: Case Studies in Community Development

By Paul R. Dommel; John Stuart Hall et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction

FEDERAL AID has evolved as a complex system of cooperation and sharing of functional responsibilities among the federal, state, and local levels of government. But within this cooperative framework, the federal government's imposition of policy and administrative requirements creates tension. State and local governments prefer discretion over the use of federal aid. As the amount and variety of federal grants have increased, so have the possibilities for tension within the intergovernmental system.

Between 1960 and 1980 the amount of federal aid increased from $7 billion to over $90 billion a year, and the number of assistance programs, mostly small, narrow-purpose grants, grew from approximately 160 in 1961 to more than 500 in 1980. With this growth has also come the imposition of many federal mandates requiring state and local officials to comply with various statutes and directives in such areas as environmental safeguards, affirmative action, and wage standards.1

As the grant system grew in size and complexity and became more regulated, governors, mayors, city managers, county executives, and organizations representing them pressed the federal government for major changes. They have urged the government to reduce the number of grants and to provide them in a way that will give state and local officials greater discretion in spending the money. They have further sought federal assumption of responsibility for certain functions, most notably welfare and medicaid.

The New Federalism of the Nixon administration was a response to these pressures. In some areas of governmental activity the Nixon admin

____________________
1
For an analysis of mandates, see Catherine Lovell and others, Federal and State Mandating on Local Governments: An Exploration of Issues and Impacts ( Graduate School of Administration, University of California at Riverside, 1979). For a view on the local impact of mandates, see Edward I. Koch, "The Mandate Millstone," The Public Interest, no. 61 (Fall 1980), pp. 42-57.

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Decentralizing Urban Policy: Case Studies in Community Development
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 276

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.