us not . . . assemble multitudes of young men trained in 'fours right'. Instead let us train these young men to be scientists, chemists, mechanics and skilled workers. More men for parade-ground training? No! It is . . . the devices of the ingenious and the scientific that we need."(8) June 21, 1940


NOTES
(1)
Two months later Senator Norris added, "It seems to me that the recruiting stations not only have discouraged enlistments but the effect of their action has been to prohibit them". Senator Walsh added to the chorus of the opposition (Aug. 20), "Until voluntary enlistments on a fair basis have been tried and there is evidence of a real need, I am not disposed to embrace, in peacetime, the power of the government to conscript." And on Aug. 27, Senator Johnson charged, "the Burke-Wadsworth peacetime conscription proposal became a menace to our liberties".

Suppressed for nearly 100 years was Daniel Webster's charge, "unconstituitional", of the Conscription Bill then under debate. The principles "are not warranted by any provision of the Constitution . . . not connected with any power which the Constitution has conferred on Congress. The Constitution is libelled, foully libelled. Where is it written in the Constitution, in what article or section is it contained that you may take children from their parents and parents from their children to fight the battles of any war in which the folly or the wickedness of Government may engage it? An attempt to maintain this doctrine upon the provisions of the Constitution is an exercise of perverse ingenuity to extract slavery from the substance of a free government." ( Charles Beard , "Rise of American Civilization, Vol. 1)

Judge William Bondy, in Federal Court, heard counsel state that the situation now "is not parallel to that which arose through litigation concerning other draft acts". Counsel charged that any peace time conscription act "obliterated" the Bill of Rights. "We are not now at war. Our challenge relates to the assumption that Congress when the nation is at peace can enforce conscription as provided by the act of 1940" (AP, December 3, 1940). Moreover "a worker is deprived of his job and earnings if he is conscripted and the penalty for failure to comply with the law is 5 years in prison and $10,000 fine. A manufacturer who fails to comply is liable to 3 years and $50,000 fine and while his factory is taken over by the government he receives complete compensation for its use!"

"Suppression of dangerous thoughts" is a well recognized function of the Japanese Imperial Government. But private societies are also organized in Japan for a similar purpose.

(2)
President Conant of Harvard appeared before the Senate Military Affairs Committee, July 3, 1940, to support the Conscription bill. This may have been at the suggestion of its co-author, Grenville Clark, most influential member of the Harvard Corporation, who seems to be taking over the toga of Thomas Lamont, the most influential of Harvard alumni.

-363-

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