Let him come out strong for saving a few billion whenever possible. "What is a billion?" It's what Roosevelt bawls for every Monday. It's his paregoric,--expensive, but the only thing that keeps him quiet.

Let Willkie make it clear that prosperity can come only after the destruction of war has ceased. "Save a Billion When You Can."(4) August 9, 1940


NOTES
(1)
"Are public opinion polls in themselves propaganda instruments? Consciously or unconsciously, they may well be, for the selection and wording of the questions which they put to their sample cross sections fall into one or more of four categories: (1) Omission (2) Commission (3) Suggestion (4) Objectivism." "The directors of the three best known opinion polls, George Gallup of the American Institute of Public Opinion, Elmo Roper of Fortune, and Archibald Crossley of the Crossley Polls, were all schooled in commercial polling. Dr. Gallup still is research director of the Young and Rubican advertising agency with which he was associated before organizing his Institute in 1935. Mr. Roper and Mr. Crossley have been associated with market research for many years." (" Polls, Propaganda, and Democracy", Propaganda Analysis, Nov. 11, 1940)

Opinions result from repetition of what has been heard and accepted,--slogans and abstractions. Hitler in "Mein Kampf" knew this too. "Our ordinary conception of public opinion depends only in very small measure on our personal experience or knowledge, but mainly on the other hand, on what we are told; and this is presented to us in the form of so-called 'enlightenment', persistent and emphatic."

Bryce in the eighties recognized, "The art of propaganda has been much studied in our time, and it has attained a development which enables its practitioners by skilfully and sedulously applying false or one-sided statements of fact to beguile and mislead those who have not the means or the time to ascertain the facts for themselves."

"The question whether the plain people really itch to save democracy all over again is not to be decided by Gallup polls, for, no matter how adroitly their questions on the subject are framed, they put reluctance at a disadvantage. When a poor boob is approached by a brisk stranger on the street, or at his house door, and asked whether he is willing to fight for his country, he is almost certain to answer yes; and when he is asked if he prefers Churchill to Hitler, he is certain to answer yes again, for he has heard about the FBI's heroic pursuit of fifth columnists, and he is well aware that anyone is a fifth columnist, by the official definition, who is not willing to serve in the English fifth column. My guess is that the majority of plain Americans . . . are a great deal less eager to sacrifice their legs or lives for England than the editorial writers of the newspapers appear to think. The issue, to such poor folk, is not one between embracing Hitler on the one hand and fighting for 'religion and morality' on the other, but simply one

-422-

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