Motivation: Theory and Research

By Harold F. O'Neil Jr.; Michael Drillings | Go to book overview

8
Some Issues Involved in Motivating Teams

Robert W. Swezey

Andrew L. Meltzer

InterScience America

Eduardo Salas

Naval Training Systems Center

Team: Two or more horses, oxen etc. harnessed to the same vehicle or plow.

-- ( Webster New World Dictionary: Second College Edition, 1980).

The nature of motivation has been of keen interest to students of human behavior for centuries. The Greek philosopher Epicurus, for instance, proposed the hedonistic view that people are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain, a position which, according to Franken ( 1982), continues as the cornerstone for various current theories of human motivation. In the 1930s and 1940s the study of human motivation attracted a great deal of interest among psychologists, resulting in the emergence of a variety of theories, including need-based conceptualizations (e.g., Maslow, 1943), and cognitive formulations (e.g., Lewin, 1938; Tolman, 1932), among many others. Later in the 1950s and 1960s, psychologists began to focus on the role of motivation in the work place, specifically in the areas of job satisfaction and job performance resulting in a variety of equity-based (e.g., Adams, 1965), instrumentality-based (e.g., Porter & Lawler, 1968; Vroom, 1964), and goal-setting (e.g., Locke, 1968) orientations. Much recent work has attempted to coordinate various theories of motivation by placing an emphasis on the diverse effects of goals (e.g., Graham, this volume; Kanfer, 1990; Locke, this volume).

The measurement of motivation is made difficult by virtue of the fact that motivation itself is not directly observable. As a result, we are left to infer motivational processes based on behavioral observations. When one speaks of motivation, one is generally concerned with the question of what arouses and energizes behavior. The direction of behavior, the intensity of action, and the

-141-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Motivation: Theory and Research
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 332

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.