Motivation: Theory and Research

By Harold F. O'Neil Jr.; Michael Drillings | Go to book overview

11
Stress Induced Anxiety of Individuals and Teams in a Simulator Environment

James Franken Troy State University

Harold F. O'Neil, Jr. University of Southern California/CRESST

Almost all elements that make up the U.S. Navy must work in team situations to "get the job done." One of the most critical of these elements today is that of Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). Anti-Submarine Warfare is the art of defensive or aggressive measures to neutralize enemy submarines. In our study, antisubmarine warfare focused on the use of aircraft against submarines.

As the equipment and tactics used in Anti-Submarine Warfare become increasingly complex and the importance of the submarine-hunting process increases due to the shrinking defense budget and world events, increased pressure is being applied on the teams involved. Because of the cost of actual in-flight training, the military is relying more heavily on simulators to train their aircrew teams.

Simulators are designed to be used in training and evaluation in lieu of the actual system itself. Use of simulators is safer, more economical, and more convenient than training in the real system. Simulators can also support training in a broader range of skills and functions than is possible in the real system. In general, training simulators are designed to replace the practice that would otherwise take place in the system itself plus essential practice, not possible in the real system itself ( Flexman & Stark, 1987; McWilliams & Ricard, 1987; O'Neil & Robertson, 1992).

The P-3 Aircrew Tactical Trainer (Simulator) is just such a simulation, and it simulates the P-3 aircraft. It has positions (stations) for the crewmembers to sit at that are exactly like those in the real aircraft. The electronic equipment that the crewmembers operate is exactly the same as that in the aircraft and performs identically. Communication between crew members is the same and the cockpit simulator can even be connected with the tactical trainer simulator to practice

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