Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982

By H. L. Roitblat; T. G. Bever et al. | Go to book overview

generalized of fact. To the contrary, the short-interstimulus interval curves from the humans show lower performance only at medial items, while Oscar's curves show a lower performance only at terminal items.

An unexpected result of this study was the failure of the adolescent humans and monkey to show any facilitation with additional stimulus off- time. This finding suggests the interesting possibility that rehearsal in visual memory is an ability that may be acquired at later stages of development not only for humans but also for rhesus monkeys. The human developmental literature has shown that active rehearsal strategies do not appear until the later elementary school years ( Appelet al., 1972; Hagen, Jongeward, & Kail, 1975). A similar conclusion would be consistent with the results of this experiment. Further support for the developmental hypothesis can be found in the striking similarities between the adolescent humans and Felix in absolute levels of accuracy, the effects of list length and interstimulus interval. Both showed lower levels of accuracy than their adult counterparts, both showed a progressive loss in accuracy with increasing list length, and both were unaffected by interstimulus interval.

If we accept the notion that Oscar is maintaining list items in a manner analogous to rehearsal, then this result has important implications for the nature of rehearsal in visual memory. Some investigators have shown that the ability to rehearse and maintain pictures is enhanced if the pictures can be described by a convenient verbal label ( Lutz & Scheirer, 1974; Tobachnik & Brotsky, 1976). Several other investigators, however, have shown that verbal descriptions are not necessarily an essential requirement to the rehearsal of pictures ( Phillips & Christie, 1977; Graefe & Watkins, 1980; Intraub, 1979; Tversky & Sherman, 1975). The results from Oscar provide evidence that rehearsal of pictorial materials does not depend exclusively on verbal encoding. Human subjects may employ verbal codes to mediate pictorial recognition. Indeed, one of our human subjects employed a verbal labeling strategy for the pictures in the later stages of testing and overtly rehearsed (verbalized) during the interstimulus interval and probe delay. The other adult human subject also reported the adoption of verbal labels as testing progressed. The advantage to a verbal encoding strategy, however, is not clear since performance of the human subjects remained relatively constant across all experimental sessions even though both reported a shift from visualization to verbalization strategies.


V. SUMMARY

Serial-probe recognition performance of briefly (80 msec) presented Pictures was facilitated with a 1000 msec interstimulus interval relative to a 80 msec interstimulus interval in two human subjects and in a single highly-trained rhesus monkey (Oscar). These results demonstrated the benefits of additional time to process or rehearse successively presented pictures. Serial position curves for the adult humans showed an increase in the pre-recency portion of the curve with the 1000 msec interstimulus interval. Serial position curves for Oscar showed an increase in the recency portion of the curve with additional stimulus off time. In addition, serial position curves for Oscar, who in previous studies had shown

-385-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 684

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.