Dictionary of Polling: The Language of Contemporary Opinion Research

By Michael L. Young | Go to book overview

P

PANELS A specialized poll in which respondents are interviewed again and again as part of an ongoing study. Panels use the same respondents for two, three, four, or more interviews ( Johnson and Joslyn, 1986:111-112). The panel method was developed by the renowned sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld. His classic study of voting behavior, The Peoples Choice, ( 1944) is still a leading example of the technique. Lazarsfeld and his colleagues interviewed over six hundred people in Erie County, Ohio, once a month for six months. Respondents were asked about their voting intentions and the things that influenced their thinking about the upcoming election ( Williamson et al., 1982:130).

Today panels are widely used in consumer research, audience research, and political polling. They have one paramount advantage over other polls: panels monitor change in individuals from poll to poll. This allows researchers to find out who is changing, who is not, and why. By contrast, nonpanel polls allow only net change to be measured from one poll to the next. Knowing only net change may obscure enormous shifting back and forth of opinion between surveys ( Clark, 1976:20).

Of course, panels also have drawbacks. The most serious is the mortality problem--which is people dropping out of the panel. Mortality is a serious threat to the representativeness of panels, since people who drop out of panels are usually different than those who remain. The other problem with panels is their potential for reactivity; that is, respondents may become biased from repeated interviewing. This problem, known technically as the interaction effects of testing, can occur if respondents change simply because they have been interviewed. They may pay more attention to news, be more aware of issues, or think more about the matters on which they are questioned ( Babbie, 1973:64,65,43; Weisburg, Krosnick, and Bowen, 1989:133-134). See also CONDITIONING; DROPOUTS; LONGITUDINAL SURVEYS; TREND STUDIES.

-147-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dictionary of Polling: The Language of Contemporary Opinion Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • A 9
  • B 19
  • C 27
  • D 49
  • E 59
  • F 71
  • G 77
  • H 83
  • I 91
  • J 105
  • K 107
  • L 109
  • M 117
  • N 129
  • O 141
  • P 147
  • Q 175
  • R 181
  • S 189
  • T 225
  • W 239
  • Y 243
  • Bibliography 245
  • Index 257
  • About the Author 267
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 276

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.