Modern India: The Origins of An Asian Democracy

By Judith M. Brown | Go to book overview

Notes

CHAPTER I. THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: LAND, PEOPLE, AND POWER
1
Indian Opinion, 2 October 1909, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. ix ( Delhi, 1963), p. 389.

For a discussion of image-making by Indians and westerners about each other, see M. Singer , When a Great Tradition Modernizes. An Anthropological Approach to Indian Civilization ( London, 1972), pp. 11-38; U. King, "'Indian Spirituality, Western Materialism: An Image and its Function in the Reinterpretation of Modern Hinduism'", Social Action, 28, 1 ( Jan.-Mar. 1978), pp. 62-86.

2
P. J. Marshall, East Indian Fortunes. The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century. ( Oxford, 1976), p. 34. See also P. J. Marshall, Bengal. The British Bridgehead. Eastern India 1740-1828 ( Cambridge, 1987); C. A. Bayly, Imperial Meridian. The British Empire and the World 1780-1830 ( London and New York, 1989).
3
A good introduction to this complex topic is A. T. Embree, "'Landholding in India and British Institutions'", in R. E. Frykenberg (ed.), Land Control and Social Structure in Indian History ( Madison, Milwaukee and London, 1969), pp. 33-52. See also E. Stokes, The Peasant And The Raj. Studies in agrarian society and peasant rebellion in colonial India ( Cambridge, 1978), pp. 1-3. On the emergence of patrimonial in place of prebendal holdings, see C. A. Bayly, Imperial Meridian, pp. 27-9; C. A. Bayly, Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire ( Cambridge, 1988), pp. 10-11.
4
Such a generalization masks differences between India's different agricultural regions. One regional study indicates pressure on land before the late nineteenth century. See D. Kumar , Land And Caste In South India. Agricultural labour in the Madras Presidency during the nineteenth century ( Cambridge, 1965).
5
A. Das Gupta, "'The Merchants Of Surat, c. 1700-50'", in E. Leach and S. N. Mukherjee (eds.), Elites In South Asia ( Cambridge, 1970), p. 215. The subsequent evidence on Surat comes from H. Furber, Bombay Presidency in the Mid-Eighteenth Century ( New York, 1965), pp. 7-8. Further case studies are A. Das Gupta, Malabar In Asian Trade, 1740- 1800 ( Cambridge, 1967); Marshall, East Indian Fortunes and Bengal. The British Bridgehead. See also K. N. Chaudhuri, The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660-1760 ( Cambridge, 1978).
6
For the financing of hinterland trade see the case study by C. A. Bayly, "'Indian Merchants in a Traditional Setting: Benares, 1780-1830'", pp. 171-93, in C. Dewey and A. G. Hopkins (eds.), The Imperial Impact: Studies in the Economic History of Africa and India ( London, 1978).
7
A. Maddison, Class Structure and Economic Growth. India and Pakistan since the Moghuls ( London, 1971), p. 33.
8
Introductory works on the Muslims and Sikhs are P. Hardy, The Muslims of British India ( Cambridge, 1972); K. Singh, A History of The Sikhs, 2 vols. ( Princeton, 1963 and 1966); W. O. Cole and P. S. Sambhi, The Sikhs. Their Religious Beliefs and Practices ( London, 1978). On South Indian Christians an excellent study is S. B. Bayly, Saints, Goddesses andKings. Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700-1900

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