José Martí, Cuban Patriot

By Richard Butler Gray | Go to book overview

Chapter 1
BIOGRAPHY

JosÉ Martí was born January 28, 1853, in Havana, Cuba, the son of Mariano Martí y Navarro, a first sergeant in the Spanish Royal Artillery, and of Leonor Pérez y Cabrera. His father was a native of Valencia, Spain, and his mother came from Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the Canary Islands. According to Spanish custom, Martí was given his father's name for his first surname, and that of his mother for his second surname. When he was baptized as a Roman Catholic on February 12, 1853, in the church of Santo Angel Custodio de la Habana, his full name became José Julián Martí y Pérez. Martí was born a citizen of Spain. Although from an early age he was to fight for liberation of Cuba from Spain, he never renounced his citizenship nor was he denied it by the Spanish government. An affidavit on "clearness of blood," requested at the time of Martí's entry into high school in Havana in 1866, showed that respected individuals who knew Martí's parents testified to the legitimacy of Martí's birth and to the lack of any colored blood on the part of either parent. 1*

There were seven other children in Sergeant Martí's family, all girls, two of whom died in early childhood. When Martí was about four and a half years old, his father resigned as a local guard and uprooted his family to take them to Spain so that he could recover his health. They remained two years in Spain and then returned to Havana, where Mariano Martí secured employment as a guard. 2 There were complaints about his conduct, however, and he was released from duty in 1860. 3 The reason given was that Martí, in his capacity as a

____________________
*
Notes section begins on page 263.

-1-

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José Martí, Cuban Patriot
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Forward v
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Contents xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Chapter 1 - Biography 1
  • Chapter 2 - Moral and Social Ideas 35
  • Chapter 3 - Political Ideas 59
  • Chapter 4 - Transfiguration in the Plastic Arts 83
  • Chapter 5 - Symbolism in Social Groups 110
  • Chapter 6 - The Apotheosis of JosÉ MartÍ 132
  • Chapter 7 - Symbolism in Politics 148
  • Chapter 8 - The People Speak 196
  • Chapter 9 - Aftermath of the Revolution 229
  • Chapter 10 - Summary and Conclusions 245
  • Notes 263
  • Bibliography 285
  • Index 299
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