Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors

By Aleksander Gella | Go to book overview

Notes

INTRODUCTION
1.
Jerzy J. Nowakl, "Ssiedzka Europa", Zdanie (monthly) No. 1, 1985.
2.
This statement should not be read as an expectation of World War III. The changes should be brought about, without a great war, but by demographic and economic processes, as well as eventually by some reasonable developments in international relations.
3.
Frank Lee Benns, Europe since 1914, In Its World Setting ( New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1949) p. 90. All quotes concerning Wilson's "Declaration" are from Frank Lee Benns.

CHAPTER 1
1.
The last Turkish invasion seriously threatening central Europe, for it reached and surrounded the capital of the Austrian Empire. Vienna was saved with the decisive help of the rescue units of the Polish cavalry. Under the personal leadership of the King of Poland, John III (Sobieski), the Turkish army was destroyed.
2.
At this time, the name ' Russia' was not in use. It was introduced to the diplomatic language in the eighteenth century.
3.
The Golden Horde was the westernmost part of the Mongol Empire that controlled territories from Siberia to the Black Sea, and the Polish Kingdom. The Mongols of the Golden Horde (popularly known as Tartars) invaded these territories, which were later called "Russia." They brought complete calamity and destroyed the Kievian state. Moscow had to pay a tribute to the Golden Horde. Internal conflicts that caused the Mongols' decline gave the Moscovites an opportunity to expand toward the south and east. But yet in 1408 Moscow was (unsuccessfully) surrounded by Mongols.
4.
Oprichnina was originally a band of faithful servants organized by Ivan IV into a police force; they were used by the tsar to crush not only all boyars (Russian nobility) under suspicion, but also the Russian princes who had been relatively free until then. Oprichnina enabled the tsars to build the first police state in modern history. "The

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