The manifestations of life still excited the Queen more than the old extravagances of mourning. Such a long span of years and experience must have tempted her sometimes to make comparisons. In 1820, when her mother wished her family in Coburg to know exactly what the "little May Flower" looked like, a pencil sketch was sent. When the Tsar and Tsarina went to Balmoral in October, 1896, they were all photographed by Mr. Downey, with "the new cinematograph process," which made "moving pictures by winding off a reel of films." For the pencil sketch the little Princess had to stay very still; for the "new cinematograph process" the Queen had walked "up and down," with the "children jumping about. " 5 In more solemn ways also, comparisons were exciting. In the year when the Queen was born, little children were working in factories fourteen hours a day. They laboured at benches before they had learned to write their names. In 1897 children were being educated in free schools and Lord Salisbury's government had passed a bill assuring compensation to their fathers, if they were injured while at work.



MEN who hoped to escape the rancours of the Old World during the nineteenth century, by migrating to new countries, were sadly disillusioned, for in every considerable colony, except Australia, there was war. Freedom and peace of mind proved to be illusions: ploughshares were soon beaten back into swords, to defend the harsh claims of nationalism from which the adventurers had hoped to escape. Causes for battle were pounced on in the colonies almost as readily as among the inflammable little nations of Europe. Also, the truculent parent countries were continuously committing affronts, quickly healed by apology, and insults that melted into explanation, so that life for colonists in the fair new lands was as full of malice and uncertainty as it had been at home.

In July, 1893, French warships blockaded Bangkok, capital of Siam, which was under British protection. An ultimatum was sent to Paris and war was once more threatened; then the French government stepped over the incident by disclaiming responsibility for the Ad


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Reign of Queen Victoria
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