Central Planning in Czechoslovakia: Organization for Growth in a Mature Economy

By Jan M. Michal | Go to book overview

Chapter 1
POPULATION AND MANPOWER

1. Basic Demographic Data

The present population of Czechoslovakia--in a comparable territory of 127.8 thousand square kilometers, i.e., without Carpatho-Ruthenia, which was incorporated into the USSR at the end of the war--decreased, in terms of midyear averages, from 14.4 million in the last peace year, 1937, to 14.2 million in 1945 and to 12.3 million in 1948. The main factors causing this decrease were the wartime losses suffered by the Czechoslovak armies in the east and west and the deportation and executions of the home population, as well as the postwar expulsion of a great part of the German population and the exchange of Hungarians from Slovakia and Slovaks from Hungary. On the other hand, groups of Czechs and Slovaks who had lived abroad returned to Czechoslovakia after the Second World War. It would not serve any useful purpose in the present economic study to examine these factors in detail. The reader is only requested to bear in mind, when making comparisons with prewar days, that, besides the reduction in territory (for which, unless otherwise stated, a due correction of prewar figures has been made throughout this study), there was a population decline of 14.5 per cent between 1937 and 1948, on comparable territory.

In the decade under study, the changes of population through migration have been negligible. Emigration due to economic considerations, which was rather important at the beginning of this century, has been almost completely stopped. In 1954, 1955, and 1956, respectively, only 2.7, 3.3, and 2.7 thousand people legally emigrated, while 2.0, 2.3, and 1.8 thousand came into Czechoslovakia. Official migration data for the two later years are not available to the author, yet it is safe to assume that they are as low as for 1954-56. Somewhat greater was the flow of refugees to the West in 1948 and subsequent years, which, similarly to the transfer of a part of the German and Hungarian population, is not recognized in the official Cechoslovak migration figures. No reliable statistical data are available, yet most estimates of the total number of refugees since 1948 (up to 1958) are in the range of 60 to 80 thousand; the rate of refugees amounted thus, over a period of ten years, to only 0.4-0.6 per cent of the

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Central Planning in Czechoslovakia: Organization for Growth in a Mature Economy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • Abbreviations and Symbols xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 Population and Manpower 6
  • Chapter 2 Industry 26
  • Chapter 3 Construction 58
  • Chapter 4 Agriculture 64
  • Chapter 5 Transportation 91
  • Chapter 6 External Trade 96
  • Chapter 7 Money and Prices 139
  • Chapter 8 State Budget and Investments 165
  • Chapter 9 Income of the Population and Standard of Living 188
  • Chapter 10 National Income, Gross Product, and Expenditure Aggregates 211
  • Conclusion 238
  • Appendix Results of the 1959 Plan; Plan for 1960 and Targets for 1965 Under the Third Five-Year Plan 245
  • Summary 253
  • Bibliography of Works Cited 265
  • Subject Index 269
  • Name Index 274
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