Central Planning in Czechoslovakia: Organization for Growth in a Mature Economy

By Jan M. Michal | Go to book overview

CONCLUSION

If the approximations of national accounts in Chapter 10 have fair validity--and the quantitative analysis by branches of the Czechoslovak economy in Chapters 2 to 6 seems to support this--the over-all increase in per capita production of goods and services over the period 1948-57 in Czechoslovakia was approximately the same as in the Western European market economies that had a comparably advanced economic level: Austria, West Germany, and France. (Czechoslovak growth of production, measured in the above-described way, appears to have been somewhat faster than the growth in the United Kingdom or the United States; however, the higher level of production in these two countries in the base year of our comparisons is to be taken into account.)

Yet, to achieve a comparable, or slightly higher, growth of per capita output, a much greater input of both labor and fixed capital assets was needed in Czechoslovakia during the period under study.

The percentage of economically active population in the total population is the same, or slightly higher, as compared with Western market economies (especially because of a noticeably higher percentage of working women in Czechoslovakia, as described in Chapter 1). Practically the entire nonagricultural economically active population consists of wage and salary earners. Contrary to the Western market economies, there is officially no unemployment, and in reality only very small unemployment, in Czechoslovakia; even frictional unemployment hardly occurs, in view of the direction of labor. Working hours seem to be longer in Czechoslovakia: in 1958, for example, hours worked per week in manufacturing compared as follows: Czechoslovakia (author's estimate, including mining and electricity), 48.4;1 West Germany, 45.7; the United Kingdom, 45.4; Austria and France, 45.0; the United States, 39.3.2 A certain amount of time worked in Czechoslovakia was wasted by stoppages caused by break

____________________
1
The legal normal working time was 46 hours (less in mining and in other hazardous work); according to Statistické zprávy, No. 11, 1959, overtime worked in 1958 in industry amounted, on the average, to 6.8 per cent of normal working time.
2
In some Western market economies, shorter hours worked in 1958 were partly due to a reduced employment level ( 1958 was a year of recession in some Western countries). But even at a normal employment level, as in 1957, the hours worked in Czechoslovakia were longer than in the West (see Table 2.9). On the other hand, allowance should be made for a relatively greater number of persons in the United States who have two jobs.

-238-

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Central Planning in Czechoslovakia: Organization for Growth in a Mature Economy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • Abbreviations and Symbols xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 Population and Manpower 6
  • Chapter 2 Industry 26
  • Chapter 3 Construction 58
  • Chapter 4 Agriculture 64
  • Chapter 5 Transportation 91
  • Chapter 6 External Trade 96
  • Chapter 7 Money and Prices 139
  • Chapter 8 State Budget and Investments 165
  • Chapter 9 Income of the Population and Standard of Living 188
  • Chapter 10 National Income, Gross Product, and Expenditure Aggregates 211
  • Conclusion 238
  • Appendix Results of the 1959 Plan; Plan for 1960 and Targets for 1965 Under the Third Five-Year Plan 245
  • Summary 253
  • Bibliography of Works Cited 265
  • Subject Index 269
  • Name Index 274
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