Models and Analogues in Biology

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ABBOTT B. C. ( 1951). The heat production associated with the maintenance of a prolonged contraction and the extra heat produced during large shortening. J. Physiol. 112, 438-445.
ABBOTT B. C. & AUBERT X. ( 1951). Changes of energy in a muscle during very slow stretches. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 139, 104-117.
ABBOTT B. C. & AURERT X. ( 1952). The force exerted by active striated muscle during and after a change in length. J. Physiol.117, 77-86.
ABBOTT B. C. & LOWY J. ( 1956). Resting tension in snail muscle. Nature, Lond. 178, 147-148.
ABBOTT B. C. & LOWY J. ( 1957). Stress relaxation in muscle. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 146, 280-288.
ABBOTT B. C. & LOWY J. ( 1958a). Contraction in molluscan smooth muscle. J. Physiol. 141, 385-397.
ABBOTT B. C. & LOWY J. ( 1958b). Mechanical properties of Helix and Mytilus muscle. J. Physiol. 141, 398-407.
ABBOTT B. C. & WILKIE D. R. ( 1953). The relation between velocity of shortening and the tension-length curve of skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. 120, 214-223.
ALFREY T. & DOTY P. ( 1945). The methods of specifying the properties of visco-elastic materials. J. appl. Phys. 16, 700-713.
AUBERT X. ( 1955). La mesure de la production de chaleur du muscle isolé. Arch. int. Physiol. Biochem. 63, 381-412.
AUBERT X. ( 1956a). Le couplage énergétique de la contraction musculaire. Thése d'agregation. Edit. Arscia. Brussels.
AUBERT X. ( 1956b). Structure et physiologic du muscle strié. I. Le méchanism contractile in vivo; aspects méchaniques et thermiques. J. Physiol., Paris, 48, 105-153.
AUBERT X., ROQUET M. L. & VAN DER J. ELST ( 1951). The tension-length diagram of frog's sartorius muscle. Arch. int. Physiol. 59, 239-241.
BANUS M. G. & ZELTIN A. M. ( 1938). The relation of isometric tension to length in skeletal muscle. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 12, 403-420.
BLANCHI C. P. & SHANES A. M. ( 1959). Calcium influx in skeletal muscle at rest, during activity and during potassium contracture. J. gen. Physiol. 42, 793-802.
BOETTIGER E. G. ( 1957). Triggering of the contractile process in insect fibrillar muscle. In Physiological Triggers (Ed. Bullock T. H.), pp. 103-116. American Physiological Society.
BOETTIGER E. G., MACHIN K. E. & PRINGLE J. W. S. ( 1959). The physiology of fibrillar muscle. Proc. XVth int. Congr. Zool. pp. 464-465.
BUCHTHAL F. ( 1942). The mechanical properties of the single striated muscle fibre at rest and during contraction and their structural interpretation. Biol. Medd., Kbh. 17, No. 2.
BUCHTHAL F. & KAISER E. ( 1951). The rheology of the cross-striated muscle fibre with particular reference to isotonic conditions. Dan. biol. Medd. 21, No. 7.
BÜLBRING E. ( 1955). Correlation between membrane potential, spike discharge and tension in smooth muscle. J. Physiol. 128, 200-221.
ECCLES J. C. & JAEGER J. C. ( 1958). The relationship between the mode of operation and the dimensions of the junctional regions at synapses and motor end-organs. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 148, 38-56.
EVANS D. H. L., SCHILD H. O. & THESLEFF S. ( 1958). Effects of drugs on depolarized plain muscle. J. Physiol. 143, 474-485.
FATT P. & KATZ B. ( 1953). The effect of inhibitory nerve impulses on a crustacean muscle fibre. J. Physiol. 121, 433-439.
FENN W. O. ( 1924). A quantitative comparison between the energy liberated and the work performed by the isolated sartorius muscle of the frog. J. Physiol. 58, 175-203.
FENN W. O. & MARSH B. S. ( 1935). Muscular force at different speeds of shortening. J. Physiol. 80, 277-297.
GRUNDFEST H. ( 1957). Electrical inexcitability of synapses and some consequences in the central nervous system. Physiol. Rev. 37, 337-361.


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Models and Analogues in Biology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Quantum Physics and Biology† 1
  • Models in Genetics 6
  • Kinetic Models of Development And Heredity 13
  • Tissues in Culture and in the Body 28
  • References 40
  • Models of Muscle 41
  • References 66
  • Mechanical Models in Zoology 69
  • Conclusions 82
  • Physical Models in Biology 83
  • Estimation of Values Of Parameters of a Model to Conform With Observations 102
  • Summary 120
  • Applications of Theoretical Models to the Study of Flight- Behaviour in Locusts and Birds 122
  • References 138
  • Electrical Analogues in Biology 140
  • Computers and the Nervous System 152
  • References 168
  • Models in Cybernetics 169
  • References 190
  • Modelling of Large-Scale Nervous Activity 192
  • Conclusions 197
  • Energy Models of Motivation 199
  • Summary 212
  • The Use of Models in the Teaching Of Embryology 214
  • School Biology as An Educational Model 230
  • Conclusion 241
  • The Problem of Communication In Biological Teaching 243
  • Acknowledge Ments 248
  • A Review of the Symposium: Models and Analogues in Biology 250


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