Models and Analogues in Biology

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Lockley ( 1942), referring to observations on Skokholm, describes--

. . . a good day for birds. The day before (i.e. 6th May, 1929) . . . sharp gale from SE. . . . five hours' heavy rain . . . roaring wind from NW., and ending with a fresh south-wester. This rude boxing of the compass had upset migrating birds. They had come down on the island in their hundreds, bewildered and weary. Swallows and willow-warblers had predominated. . . .

Strong winds from opposing directions, with heavy rain, provide evidence of vigorous convergence, consistent with the deep depression shown by the Daily Weather Report as centred in this area on the morning of the 6th.The same author, writing of Heligoland ( Lockley 1938), describes 20 October 1936, when 752 birds were ringed, as--

. . the best day of the year . . . due to a sudden change in the wind, northerly airs having been replaced suddenly by a whole Sale from the SW.

A deep depression was again involved.A final example comes from Canada, where at Delta in Manitoba, in April 1954, one of the biggest goose migrations on record at the station took place on the day following the worst blizzard of the year ( Hochbaum, 1955; I am indebted to Dr. G. V. T. Matthews for this reference). It is suggested that all four of these examples may be interpreted as accumulation of migrating birds in the vicinity of zones of convergent wind-flow.Following the work of Williamson ( 1955, etc.), considerable evidence of the part played by day-to-day changes of wind and weather in the varying manifestations of bird migration has accumulated in recent years; and the final suggestion arising from the consideration of this series of model 'locusts' and 'birds' is that perhaps the same processes of synoptic meteorology, which appear to dominate and largely to determine the whole pattern of 'migration' of the Desert Locust, may also account for some of the details of the day-by- day embroidery of the basic pattern of the migration of birds.
REFERENCES
BURTT E. T. & CATTON W. T. ( 1956). "Electrical responses to visual stimulation in the optic lobes of the locust and certain other insects." J. Physiol 133, 68-88.
CORNWALLIS R. K. ( 1955). "The pattern of migration in 1954 at the East Coast bird observatories." Brit. Birds 48, 429-446.
GRIFFIN D. R. ( 1943). "Homing experiments with herring gulls and common terns." Bird- Banding 14, 7-33.
GUNN D. L., GRAHAM J. F., JAQUES F. C., PERRY F. C., SEYMOUR W. G., TELFORD T. M. , WARD J., WRIGHT E. N. & YEO D. ( 1948). "Aircraft spraying against the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskåt) in Kenya, 1945." Anti-Locust Bull. no. 4,121.
HOCHBAUM H. A. ( 1955). Travels and Traditions of Waterfowl. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
LACK D. ( 1958). Migrational drift of birds plotted by radar. Nature, Lond. 182, 221-223.
LOCKLEY R. M. ( 1938). I Know an Island. London: Harrap.
LOCKLEY R. M. ( 1942). Shearwaters. London: Dent.
LOCKLEY R. M. ( 1953). "On the movements of the Manx Shearwater at sea during the breeding season." Brit. Birds 46, Suppl. 1-48.
MACCUAIG R. D. ( 1958). "Spray-collecting area of locusts and their susceptibility to insecticides." Nature, Lond. 182, 478-479.

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Models and Analogues in Biology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Quantum Physics and Biology† 1
  • Models in Genetics 6
  • Kinetic Models of Development And Heredity 13
  • Tissues in Culture and in the Body 28
  • References 40
  • Models of Muscle 41
  • References 66
  • Mechanical Models in Zoology 69
  • Conclusions 82
  • Physical Models in Biology 83
  • Estimation of Values Of Parameters of a Model to Conform With Observations 102
  • Summary 120
  • Applications of Theoretical Models to the Study of Flight- Behaviour in Locusts and Birds 122
  • References 138
  • Electrical Analogues in Biology 140
  • Computers and the Nervous System 152
  • References 168
  • Models in Cybernetics 169
  • References 190
  • Modelling of Large-Scale Nervous Activity 192
  • Conclusions 197
  • Energy Models of Motivation 199
  • Summary 212
  • The Use of Models in the Teaching Of Embryology 214
  • School Biology as An Educational Model 230
  • Conclusion 241
  • The Problem of Communication In Biological Teaching 243
  • Acknowledge Ments 248
  • A Review of the Symposium: Models and Analogues in Biology 250
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