Welfare as We Knew It: A Political History of the American Welfare State

By Charles Noble | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1.
On public assistance for poor families, see Timothy M. Smeeding, "Why the U.S. Antipoverty System Doesn't Work Very Well," Challenge (January-February 1992):30-35. On public programs to combat joblessness, see Richard B. Freeman, "How Labor Fares in Advanced Economies," in Richard B. Freeman, ed., Working Under Different Rules ( New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1994), 20-25; Lawrence Mishel and Jared Bernstein, The State of Working America, 1992-93 ( Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), 448. On medical care, see Joseph White, Competing Solutions: American Health Care Proposals and International Experience ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1995), 232.
2.
By structure, I mean the relatively permanent institutional and organizational factors that give order to social life.
3.
See, for example, the essays in Todd Schafer and Jeff Faux, eds., Reclaiming Prosperity: A Blueprint for Progressive Economic Reform ( Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1996).

One. The Problem
1.
Total public expenditures on social welfare purposes were 21% of the gross domestic product in 1992. See U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1995, 115th ed. ( Washington, D.C.: 1995),374.
2.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, New Orientations for Social Policy ( Paris: OECD, 1994). 59-61. Note that the OECD reports that Australia spends an even lower GDP share on social purposes, but that the Australian figures exclude program expenditures by the six states and two territories of that nation. OECD, New Orientations, compared with other "liberal" or, in Richard Titmuss's terms, "residual" welfare states, such as Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, where the state is expected to do less, the United States stands out. The American government spends a smaller share of the nation's GDP on social purposes and on labor-market programs, and provides single-parent families with less cash assistance. On the concept of a "liberal" welfare state, see Gosta Esping-Andersen, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

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Welfare as We Knew It: A Political History of the American Welfare State
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vi
  • Introduction 3
  • One the Problem 7
  • Two - An Unusually Inhospitable Environment for Reform 19
  • Three - Progressives 36
  • Four - The New Deal 54
  • Five - The Great Society 79
  • Six - Backlash 105
  • Seven the Future of Reform 135
  • Conclusion 151
  • Notes 159
  • Index 201
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