These rather abstract principles will be applied to the evaluation
of concrete democratic institutions throughout the rest of this
work. In Part Two I will discuss a fundamental challenge to the
ideals of democracy that arises in the modern state. In large democracies, the role of ordinary citizens is in danger of being eclipsed by
the complex apparatus of the state. Ordinary citizenship appears to
be incompatible with the abstract ideals of political equality and rational discussion that I have elaborated in the last two chapters. In Chapter 3 I will lay out the challenge and in 4 and 5 I will discuss
different conceptions of citizenship and defend a conception of the
role of citizenship in society that reconciles the ideals of democracy
with the conditions of the modern state. In Part Three I will elaborate a theory of political institutions for modern society that provides the complement to the role of citizenship I defend. In 6 I will lay out principles for evaluating institutions for legislative
representation. In Chapters 7 and 8 I will discuss principles for evaluating institutions of social discussion and show how the system of
interest groups and political parties ought to be evaluated in terms
of these principles.
Peter Singer, Democracy and Disobedience ( Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1974), chapter 5.
Singer, Democracy and Disobedience, p. 32.
See Thomas Christiano, "Freedom, Consensus, and Equality in Collective Decision Making", Ethics October ( 1990): pp. 151-181, especially pp. 171-175.
See Robert Dahl, A Preface to Democratic Theory ( Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1956), pp. 64-67; Dahl, "Procedural Democracy", in Philosophy, Politics, and Society, 5th Ser., ed.
James Fishkin and
( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), pp. 97-133, especially pp. 99-101
and p. 125; and Peter Jones, "Political Equality and Majority Rule", in The
Nature of Political Theory, ed.
David Miller and
Larry Siedentop ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 155-182, especially p. 166.
In Thomas Rainsborough "The Putney Debates: The Debate on the
Franchise (1647)", in Divine Right and Democracy, ed.
( Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1986), pp. 285-317, especially p. 286.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Rule of the Many:Fundamental Issues in Democratic Theory.
Contributors: Thomas Christiano - Author.
Publisher: Westview Press.
Place of publication: Boulder, CO.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 98.
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