Michelet has been useful to individual careers not so much for the way he provides a nationalist refuge to those like Febvre, who may have unconsciously worried about their own decisions during the unbelievably difficult time of war and holocaust, but for the way he has helped construct the individual fantasy life of the scientific historian entranced by achievements of 'great' predecessors. Wrapped in the mantle of science and impartiality, the saga of Michelet mutilated by his widow and rescued by heroic researchers is a melodrama whose psychological dimensions we should begin attending to, if only to understand the world of history better. Like most professionals, the surviving co-founder of the Annales--so deeply indebted to Michelet's work on mountains and seas, to the sense of the local in the Michelet travel journals, and to the complicated relationship between historical actors and their environments on which Michelet pondered--fantasized unique and singular authors as the forefathers of and contributors to his new school of history, and he worked to script it that way as had many before him. The category 'author', as Foucault proposed, has helped organize the discipline around the classification of historical writing and the development of other critical procedures that the invocation of a single author facilitates, allowing for such genealogies of influence and parentage to arise. What is a historian? we ask, altering Foucault's query. Until now a historian has been the embodiment of universal truth, who, constructed from bits of psychological detail and having passed through the purifying trials dealt by the contingencies of daily life, human passion, and devouring women, emerges a genderless genius with a name that radiates extraordinary power in the profession and in the mind of the individual practitioner. It is time to begin thinking about the ways in which this authorial presence has in fact been gendered as masculine and how it comes into being through repetitious pairings of a male 'original' with a female 'copy(ist)' or 'falsifier' or 'fake' Such a consistent pairing suggests that historical science with its aspirations to objectivity is grounded in the rhetorical tradition of classical misogyny. 70


Notes
1.
Michel Foucault, "'Qu'es-ce que c'est l'auteur'", Bulletin de la société française de philosophie, 64 ( 1969), 73-104.
2.
Arthur Mitzman, Michelet, Historian: Rebirth and Romanticism in Nineteenth- Century France ( New Haven, 1990), 284-5, "'Appendix A: Michelet's Second Wife'".

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