Wai tan: External alchemy, as a means of nourishing life, attaining Tao, and immortality, including transmutation of mercury into gold (also called chin tan), medicine, charms, magic, attempts at disappearance and change of bodily form. (Taoist religion).--W.T.C.
Wai wang: Often used as referring to the man who through his virtues and abilities gains the necessary qualifications of a ruler. ( Mencius).
Wang Chung: ( Wang Chung-jên, 27-c. 100 A.D.) Although strongly Taoistic in his naturalism, was independent in thinking. His violent and rational attack on all erroneous beliefs resulted in a strong movement of criticism. He was a scholar and official of high repute. ( Lun Hêng, partial Eng. tr. by A. Forke, Metteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprächen, Vols. IX-XI.)--W.T.C.
Wang tao: The ideal institutions described by Mencius constitute the 'Kingly Way', one that is a kingly or virtuous government.--H.H.
Wang Yang-ming: ( Wang Shou-jên, Wang Poan, 1473-1529) Was a count, a cabinet member, and a general credited with many successful campaigns against invaders and rebels. Drawing his inspiration from the teachings of Lu Hsiangshan, he developed Neo-Confucianism (li hsüeh) on the basis of the doctrine of the Mind (hsin hsüeh). His complete works, Wang Yang-ming Ch'üan-chi (partial Eng. tr. by F. G. Henke: The Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming) consist of 38 chüans in several volumes.--W.T.C.
Watson, John Broadus: ( 1878-) American psychologist and leading exponent of Behaviorism (see Behaviorism), studied and served as Instructor at the University of Chicago, and was appointed Professor of Experimental Psychology at John Hopkins University 1908 where he served until 1920. Since then he has been engaged in the advertising business in New York City. The program for a behavioristic psychology employed the objective methods of the biological sciences and excluded the introspective method of earlier psychology; it is formulated by Watson in "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It", Psychological Review XX ( 1913), and Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, 1914.--L.W.
Wave mechanics: See Quantum mechanics.
Weber, Max: ( 1864-1920) Weber started his career as a jurist in Berlin and later taught political economy at Freiburg, Heidelberg and Munich. He was a founder of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie and editor of Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik. Much of his scholarly work was devoted to the sociology of religion. He participated in the Peace Conference at Versailles, and argued against ratification of the treaty; but later he became a member of the committee on the constitution for the German Republic. The provision in that constitution for the popular election of the president was inserted largely because of Weber's pressure. Main works: Gesammelte Aufsätze z. Religionssoziologie ( 1920); z. Soziologie u. Sozialpolitik ( 1922); z. Wissenschaftelehre ( 1924).--M.B.M.
Weber-Fechner Law: Basic law of psychophysics
which expresses in quantitative terms the relation
between the intensity of a stimulus and the intensity of the resultant sensation. E. H. Weber
applying the method of "just noticeable difference" in experiments involving weight discrimination found that the ability to discriminate two
stimuli depends not on the absolute difference
between the two stimuli but on their relative
intensities and suggested the hypothesis that for
each sense there is a constant xpressing the relative intensities of stimuli producing a just noticeable difference of sensation. Fechner, also
employing the method of just perceptible difference, arrived at the formula that the sensation
varies with the logarithm of the stimulus:
S = C log R
where S represents the intensity of the sensation, R that of the stimulus and C a constant which varies for the different senses and from individual to individual and even for the same individual at different times.--L.W.
Wei: The product of culture, social order, and training; ability acquired through training and accomplishment through effort; human activity as a result of the cogitation of the mind, as opposed to what is inborn. ( Hsün Tzŭ, c 335- c 288 B.C.).--W.T.C.
Wei wo: "For the self," in the sense of "preserving life and keeping the essence of our
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Publication information: Book title: The Dictionary of Philosophy. Edition: 4th. Contributors: Dagobert D. Runes - Editor. Publisher: Philosophical Library. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 1942. Page number: 334.
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