the magic herb which saves Ulysses from Circe's magic. But are
we as readers expected to discover and relate to each other the
multiple equivalents enumerated on the note-sheets? Probably
not. In this case, as in so many others, the detailed working-out of
a 'correspondence' was primarily for Joyce's benefit, a part of the
rigid discipline he had to undergo in order to control his disparate materials. Many of these detailed schemes lurk in the
background of the novel, like the discarded scaffolding of a
building which reflects its external form but tells us little of the
essential nature. It would be a grave mistake to found any interpretation of Ulysses on Joyce schema, rather than on the human
actions of Stephen, and Molly, and Mr. Leopold Bloom.
NOTES FOR SECTION I
Georges Borach, Conversations with James Joyce, trans.
, College English, XV ( March 1954), 325. Borach is recalling a conversation of 1 August 1917.
W. B. Stanford, The Ulysses Theme, Oxford, 1954, pp. 186-87. Stanford was the first to discover that Joyce had to read the first seven
chapters of Lamb Adventures of Ulysses in 1893-94 while preparing for the
Intermediate Examination in English. See his useful studies of Joyce's early
contact with the Odyssey in Envoy, V ( April 1951), 62-69, and The Listener, XLVI ( 19 July 1951), 99, 105. Kevin Sullivan has also examined Joyce's
reading of Lamb in Joyce among the Jesuits, New York, 1958, pp. 94-98.
Letters, 193. JJ to Mrs. William Murray, 10 Nov. 1922.
Gorman, 45. At Belvedere College Joyce wrote an essay on Ulysses
as 'My Favourite Hero'.
Gorman, 176. See also Ellmann, 238-39. The versions quoted here
are based upon my reading of the original letters (now in the Cornell
See Richard Levin and
Charles Shattuck, "First Flight to Ithaca", in James Joyce: Two Decades of Criticism, ed.
Seon Givens, New York, 1948,
pp. 47-94. Levin and Shattuck argue for a deliberate parallel with the Odyssey
embracing all fifteen stories, but their reasoning is forced when they reach The Dead. For the date of The Dead, see Ellmann, 252ff.
Richard Ellmann, "The Backgrounds of Ulysses", Kenyon Review, XVI
(Summer 1954), 342.
Gorman, 224. It is interesting to note that when Joyce began to write Finnegans Wake, nine years later, he also started by sketching in passages
which ultimately were incorporated in the work's later episodes.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Art of James Joyce: Method and Design in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake.
Contributors: A. Walton Litz - Author.
Publisher: Oxford University Press.
Place of publication: London.
Publication year: 1961.
Page number: 40.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may
not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.