The Art of James Joyce: Method and Design in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake

By A. Walton Litz | Go to book overview

In Fragment A all the descriptive details of the Stephen Hero account have been eliminated; the result is an increase of emotional intensity in the portrayal of his mother's grief and in Stephen's embittered reply. Diffuse personal arguments have been retired in favour of a single intense passage. But even this concentrated presentation seemed too personal, too much a figure of his own revolt, to be retained by Joyce in the Portrait.

Fragments A and B reveal the characteristics of Joyce's technique at the time when he began Ulysses. The compression demanded by his theory of 'epiphany' and the aloof tone resulting from his notion of 'stasis' are everywhere evident. Already apparent are the allusiveness and symbolic 'thickening' (as in the ' Omphalos' figure) that give his later works a dense texture comparable to that of poetry. The flow of Doherty's words through Stephen's mind has the quality of the 'interior monologue' in Ulysses, and the treatment of time found in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake can be discovered in these fragments. Both of the scenes involving Doherty come to Stephen as memories prompted by his present situation, thus illustrating Joyce's desire to use memory as an agent for investing every moment with the richness of layer upon layer of associated experiences.


NOTES FOR APPENDIX B
1.
See James Joyce, Epiphanies, ed. O. A. Silverman, Lockwood Memorial Library, University of Buffalo, 1956.
2.
I am indebted to Mr. J. Mitchell Morse, who pointed out several parallels that I had not noticed. See his note in PMLA, LXXI ( December 1956), 1173.
3.
Gorman, 136.
4.
Stephen Hero, ed. Theodore Spencer, New Edn., New York, 1955, p. 135.
5.
Stephen Hero, p. 121. Added in pencil at the end of Chapter XX of the MS.
6.
For the dating of Stephen Hero, see Theodore Spencer's comments in his Introduction ( Stephen Hero, pp. 7-9), and Joyce's letter to Grant Richards dated 13 March 1906 ( Gorman, 148).
7.
Letters, 136; Joyce to Harriet Weaver, 1 Jan. 1920. Herbert Gorman says that in 1908 Joyce 'burned a portion of Stephen Hero in a fit of momentary despair and then started the novel anew in a more compressed form' ( Gorman, 196). Gorman may have mistaken the date, or he may, as Stanislaus Joyce suggests, have confused an attempt to burn Dubliners with the burning of Stephen Hero. We shall probably never know the exact details of this important event. The various accounts are summarized on pp. 136-137 of the Slocum and Cahoon Bibliography (item E. 3. d.).

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The Art of James Joyce: Method and Design in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Abbreviations ix
  • Contents xi
  • I- The Design of Ulysses 1
  • Notes for Section I 40
  • II- New Bearings 44
  • III- Work in Progress 76
  • Notes for Section III 115
  • IV- The Whole Journey 121
  • Notes for Section IV 127
  • Appendix A- Manuscripts Consulted 129
  • Appendix B- Early Vestiges of Ulysses 132
  • Notes for Appendix B 140
  • Appendix C- A Chronology of Joyce''s Work in Progress, 1914-1939 142
  • Index 151
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