The Gulf War and the New World Order: International Relations of the Middle East

By Tareq Y. Ismael; Jacqueline S. Ismael | Go to book overview

serving its own immediate interests and those of its regional allies. In sum, this is the only new world order worth considering. 30


Notes
1.
See Marion Farouk-Sluglett, "Iraq: Rente Petrolière et Concentration du Pouvoir," Maghreb-Machrek 131 ( January 1991): 3-12.
2.
For a detailed discussion of the origins and early years of the modern state, see Peter Sluglett, Britain in Iraq 1914-1932 ( London: Ithaca Press, 1976).
3.
These developments are discussed in Hanna Batatu, The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq; A Study of Iraq's Old Landed Classes and its Communists, Ba'thists and Free Officers (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978): especially 53-361, 465-82, and passim; for several interesting critiques and appreciations of Batatu's book, see Robert Fernea and Wm. Roger Louis, eds., The Iraqi Revolution of 1958: The Old Social Classes Revisited ( London: I. B. Tauris, 1991).
4.
For a useful discussion of this issue see Dale Eickelman, "Ethnicity and Cultural Identity," The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989): 207-27.
5.
For a sense of the changing nature of Sunni-Shi'i relations, compare our two articles, "Some Reflections on the Present State of Sunni-Shi'i Relations in Iraq," Bulletin of the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies 5 ( 1978): 79-87; and, "Sunnis and Shi'is Revisited: Sectarianism and Ethnicity in Authoritarian Iraq," in The Modern Middle East in Historical Perspective: Essays in Honour of Albert Hourani, ed. John P. Spagnolo ( London: Ithaca Press, 1992): 279-94. For a more optimistic interpretation see Amatzia Baram, "The Ruling Political Elite in Ba'thi Iraq: The Changing Features of a Collective Profile," International Journal of Middle East Studies 21 ( 1989): 447-93.
6.
For a more detailed discussion of the Kurdish issue, and of recent developments, see our article, "The Kurds," in The Times Guide to the Middle East, eds., Peter Sluglett and Marion Farouk-Sluglett ( London: Harper Collins, 1991): 51-67.
7.
For a relatively recent study of the city, see Bassim al-Ansari, "'al- Thawra, Quartier de Bagdad,' Thèse du 3e Cycle," EHESS ( Paris: Universite Paris VII, 1979).
8.
Salih Jabr was prime minister from March 1947 to January 1948; Muhammad al-Sadr from January 1948 to June 1948; Fadhil Jamali from September 1953 to April 1954, and 'Abd al-Wahhab Mirjan from December 1957 to March 1958. Batatu, Old Social Classes, 182.
9.
It can safely be asserted that under the present regime which has been in office since July 1968, no Shi'i has held a significant power posi

-290-

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