The Gulf War and the New World Order: International Relations of the Middle East

By Tareq Y. Ismael; Jacqueline S. Ismael | Go to book overview

21
Islam at War and Communism in Retreat What Is the Connection?

Ali A. Mazrui

In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the three most momentous events in the Muslim world were the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, the crusade in Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion of 1979, and the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis. Each of these had major global and historic repercussions.

In 1973, when the monarchy was overthrown in Afghanistan and was succeeded by a leftist regime, few people realized the global consequences. The stage was set for two decisive processes in world history that went far beyond the borders of Afghanistan. One was the disroyalization of Islam, of which the fall of the Afghan monarchy was only a minor illustration; the other was the de-Leninization of Marxism that soon engulfed much of Eastern Europe and profoundly affected the Soviet Union. Afghanistan played a surprisingly important role globally in the events that led to this latter process.


Islam: Royalist and Repubikan

The distinction between royalist Islam (based on hereditary leadership) and republican Islam (based on leadership chosen by an electoral college) dates back to the earliest days of the religion. Royalist Islam was consolidated with the advent of the Umayyad Dynasty ( A.D. 661-750) headquartered in Damascus. It was later succeeded by the Abbasid Dynasty ( A.D. 750-1258) based in Baghdad.

In doctrine, there was a quasi-hereditary factor in Shi'ite Islam. According to a well-known tradition, the Prophet Muhammad said on his deathbed, "I am leaving with you [the Muslim community]

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The Gulf War and the New World Order: International Relations of the Middle East
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - The Gulf War and the International Order 23
  • 1 - Reflections on the Gulf War Experience 25
  • Notes 38
  • 2 - The United Nations in the Gulf War 50
  • 3 - Bush's New World Order 52
  • Notes 73
  • Notes 74
  • 4 - The European Community's Middle Eastern Policy 107
  • 5 - Regional Cooperation and Security in the Middle East the Role of the European Community 116
  • Notes 129
  • 6 - Japan 132
  • References 148
  • Part II - The United States and the New World Order 151
  • 7 - Between Theory and Fact 153
  • Notes 174
  • 8 - The New World Order and the Gulf War 184
  • Notes 217
  • 9 - The Making of the New World Order 240
  • 10 - Defeating the Vietnam Syndrome 242
  • Notes 258
  • Part III - The Gulf War and the Middle East Order 263
  • 11 - Iraq and the New World Order 290
  • 12 - Iran and the New World Order 313
  • 13 - The Gulf War, the Palestinians, and the New World Order 339
  • 14 - Israel and the New World Order 347
  • Notes 363
  • 15 - Jordan and the Gulf War 381
  • 16 - Syria, the Kuwait War, and the New World Order 395
  • 17 - Imagining Egypt in the New Age 399
  • Notes 430
  • 18 - Turkey, the Gulf Crisis, and the New World Order 446
  • Part IV - Political Trends and Cultural Patterns 449
  • 19 - The Middle East in the New World Order 451
  • Acknowledgments 468
  • Acknowledgments 469
  • 20 - Islam, Democracy, and the Arab Future 473
  • Acknowledgments 497
  • Notes 497
  • 21 - Islam at War and Communism in Retreat What is the Connection? 502
  • Acknowledgments 520
  • Notes 520
  • 22 - Global Apartheid? 521
  • Notes 535
  • 23 - Democracy Died at the Gulf 548
  • Contributors 549
  • Index 554
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