Discrimination Against Women A Global Survey of the Economic, Educational, Social and Political Status of Women

By Eschel M. Rhoodie | Go to book overview
Female earnings
as percentage of
Level of education Men Women male earnings
All levels 18,537 11,743 63.3
0-8 years 15,704 8,904 56.7
Some high school 17,214 10,797 62.7
Some post-secondary 19,016 11,851 62.3
Post-secondary certificate or diploma 19,602 12,943 66.0
University degree 26,533 17,842 67.2

Table 38. Full-Time Annual Earnings of Male and Female Workers in Canada by Level of Education, 1980, Canadian Dollars. Source: International Labor Organization, The Economic Role of Women in the ECE Region, Geneva, 1985, p. 85.

ment insurance is provided for women in unionized jobs with no loss of job security or time accrued for seniority but only 25 percent of the female workforce is employed in unionized jobs. 81 The usual benefits are 60 percent of their normal wage to a maximum of $276 per week for 15 weeks. 82

Child care has also been left to the provincial governments, which have had various results. Although the Royal Commission on the Status of Women has recommended that an extensive, publicly financed day care system be established, nothing has materialized. 83 There is a shortage of facilities and many of the existing ones have problems, such as being unlicensed or violating existing regulations governing their operation, and some have proved more harmful than beneficial to their wards. This situation has made it more difficult for women to compete on equal terms with men in the job market.


Conclusion

Progress has been made in Canada, but not nearly as much as expected at the beginning of the United Nations Decade for Women in 1975. Even in the legal world itself, few Canadians know what the true state of affairs is. "The role of women in the law remains surprisingly understudied," Sylvia Bashevkin of the University of Toronto said during the 1984 symposium on women in the law. 84 Even after Canadian universities began to admit women to the law schools, Ms. Bashevkin observed, many continued to refuse them post-graduate training. 85 The right of women to practice law across Canada was already established by World War II, but the actual number of women in the law remained low until deep into the '60s. A 1970 Royal Commission found that during the '60s the percentage of women in law in Canada was only 3 percent, against 26 percent in France. The low figure was not confined to women in law. Women physicians formed only 7 percent, dental surgeons 4 percent, and engineers less than I percent. 86 In a study by Professor Marie Huxter of the University of Toronto, more than 44 percent of women law graduates cited gender as a key obstacle to their articling or to permanent employment in a legal capacity. 87

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Discrimination Against Women A Global Survey of the Economic, Educational, Social and Political Status of Women
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Part One Introduction 1
  • 1. the Evaluation and Presentation of Data 2
  • 2. the Status of Women: A Global View 13
  • 3. the Environment of Discrimination 34
  • Part Two: Legal and International Aspects 61
  • 4. the International World 62
  • 5. Constitutional and Statutory Differentiation 79
  • Part Three: the African World 99
  • 6. General Survey. 100
  • 7. Case Study: Nigeria 115
  • 8. Case Study: Kenya Introduction 125
  • 9. Case Study: South Africa 136
  • Part Four: the European Community 165
  • 10. General Survey 166
  • 11. Case Study: United Kingdom 191
  • 12. Case Study: France 201
  • 13. Case Study: West Germany 214
  • 14. Case Study: Switzerland 227
  • Part Five: North America 239
  • 15. Case Study: Canada 240
  • Conclusion 247
  • 16 Case Study: The United States 248
  • Part Six: the Communist East Bloc 289
  • 17. General Survey 290
  • 18. Case Study: the Soviet Union 304
  • Part Seven: Latin America 321
  • 19. General Survey 322
  • 20. Brief Case Studies of Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil and Peru 332
  • Part Eight: the Arab-Muslim World 345
  • 21. General Survey 346
  • 22. Case Study: Egypt 363
  • 23. Case Study: Tunisia 369
  • 24. Case Study: Iran 375
  • Part Nine: the Asian World 383
  • 25. General Survey 384
  • 26. Case Study: India 395
  • 27. Case Study: Japan 402
  • 28. Case Study: the People's Republic of China 417
  • Part Ten: Conclusions, Recommendations, Guide to Data, and Research Proposals 431
  • 29. Summary and Conclusions 432
  • 31. Data: Guide to Information Sources 481
  • 32. Research Proposals 505
  • Notes 519
  • Bibliography 587
  • Index 601
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