|These words are from a poem by Endre Ady ( 1877-1919), a major poet, who revolutionized Hungarian lyric poetry.|
|In the period around 1860 Hungarian painting was strongly influenced by the school of the Munich Academy, under Karl yon Piloty ( 1826-1886). Many leading Hungarian painters studied there: amongst them Mihály Munkácsy ( 1844-1900), Gyula Benczur ( 1844-1920), and Pál Szinyei Merse ( 1845-1920); and mainly as a result of the work of Benczur the Munich representational style became predominant in Budapest. The turn of the century saw the beginnings of a new development in Hungarian painting, with the emergence of the Nagybánya Group, led by Simon Hollόsy ( 1857-1918), Károly Ferenczy ( 1862-1917), Béla Iványi Grünwald ( 1867-1943), János Thorma ( 1870-1937) and István Réti ( 1872-1945). Concerned to create a specifically Hungarian school of painting, they succeeded, through the diversity of their individual styles, in establishing a measure of artistic freedom; and their initiative had a stimulating effect on other painters in Hungary.|
|Zsigmond Mόricz ( 1879- 1942), the outstanding Hungarian novelist and a pioneer of Popular Realism.--The leading figures of the new style of poetry published their poems in an anthology entitled Holnap (Tomorrow).--Nyugat (The West) was the name of a literary society that was formed in 1908, with Endre Ady, Zsigmond Mόricz and others, including later also Mihály Babits ( 1883- 1941), as its leading figures. It also was the name of a literary journal of high artistic standing and radical outlook, which from 1908 to 1942 published the works of progressive writers.|
|Franz (Ferenc) Liszt ( 1811-1886) and Ferenc Erkel ( 1810-1893) were the two outstanding Hungarian composers of the 19th century, the latter being the first Hungarian to write operatic music.|
|The battle of Mohács, on August 29th, 1526, was a tragic turning-point in Hungarian history, for here, on the banks of the Danube, the Hungarian army was annihilated (and their king, Louis II, killed) by the advancing forces of the Turkish sultan, Suleiman II. This was the beginning of the Turkish Occupation, extending to the greater part of Hungarian territory, which was to last for more than a century and a half. Liberation was only achieved as a result of a series of violent battles fought between 1683 and 1697; the capital, Buda, being recaptured in 1686.|
|The Cardinal Péter Pázmány (1570-1637), one of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation in Hungary, was a theological controversialist of great oratorical force, whose writings did much to promote the evolution of a Hungarian prose style.|
|The modern city of Budapest is the result of the unification, in 1873, of the three towns of Buda, Óbuda and Pest; a natural development which had been prevented for centuries by successive wars. Under the Turkish Occupation (seeNote 5), between 1541 and 1686, it had been almost completely depopulated, with the result that when, after the Turks had been driven out, the city began to grow again, its inhabitants were mostly settlers; and, from the early 18th century onwards, the Habsburgs, in pursuance of their colonial policy towards Hungary, ensured that these settlers were in the main Germans, Croats|
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Publication information: Book title: Zoltaan Kodaaly; His Life and Work. Contributors: Lászlό EŐsze - Author. Publisher: Collet's. Place of publication: Boston. Publication year: 1962. Page number: 169.
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