Political Parties and Party Systems

By Alan Ware | Go to book overview

CHAPTER EIGHT
PARTY SYSTEMS IN NON-
LIBERAL-DEMOCRATIC
REGIMES

In Chapter 4 we examined parties outside the liberal democratic world--discussing some of the similarities as well as the differences between them. At the beginning of that chapter we noted that parties in these other types of regime cannot be treated as a single category of institution: they are simply too diverse for that. When we turn to look at party systems in these regimes we encounter an even greater problem than this. To understand it we need to ask the question, 'what is a party system?', for, as was noted in the Introduction, to focus discussion on party systems is to focus on a rather different subject than parties.

Consider other areas of social life in which we refer to the idea of a 'system', such as the 'capitalist system of the Western world' or the I transport system in Britain'. 'What is involved in their 'systemness' is interaction between different elements--interactions that comprise both competition and co-operation between some of the different elements. For example, rail transport competes with road transport for passengers and freight, but enterprises in both areas often adopt pricing strategies that prevent destructive price wars; in a transport system there is also extensive co-operation (sometimes in theory more often than in practice!) between different kinds of actors, so that local buses are timed to provide connections with train services and so on. For something to be described as a 'system' there have to be boundaries and rules which constrict the actions of the participants--though these may not be the same for all of them. The ways in which the elements, in our case parties, are constrained determine the nature of the particular incentives for them to compete or co-operate (and often both together), and in turn this produces the distinctive elements of that system. Of course, there can be different interpretations by both participants and observers

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Political Parties and Party Systems
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xi
  • List of Tables xii
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • About This Book xvi
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - Parties 15
  • Chapter One - Parties and Ideology 17
  • Chapter Two - Supporters, Members, and Activists 63
  • Chapter Three - Party Organizations 93
  • Chapter Four - Parties in Non-Liberal- Democratic Regimes 124
  • Part II - Party Systems 145
  • Chapter Five - The Classification of Party Systems 147
  • Chapter Six - Why Party Systems Differ 184
  • Chapter Seven - Stability and Change in Party Systems 213
  • Chapter Eight - Party Systems in Non- Liberal-Democratic Regimes 245
  • Part III - Moving towards Government 255
  • Chapter Nine - The Selection of Candidates and Leaders 257
  • Chapter Ten - Campaigning for Election 289
  • Chapter Eleven - Voter Choice and Government Formation 317
  • Chapter Twelve - Parties in Government 349
  • Conclusions 377
  • Appendix 1 - France 383
  • Appendix 2 - Germany 388
  • Appendix 3 - Great Britain 391
  • Appendix 4 - Japan 395
  • Appendix 5 - United States 398
  • Notes 404
  • Index 417
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