The Interest Group Connection: Electioneering, Lobbying, and Policymaking in Washington

By Paul S. Herrnson; Ronald G. Shaiko et al. | Go to book overview

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank the School of Public Affairs and the Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies at American University for supporting the research for this analysis. This chapter is partially based on interviews with White House staff, House and Senate members, staff, and informed observers. I am grateful for the time they gave and for their observations about the congressional budget process. I would especially like to thank Dr. Patrick J. Griffin, assistant to the president for legislative affairs, for his insights about the relationship between President Clinton's White House, Congress, and interest groups in the congressional budget process.


Notes
1.
One of the important reforms instituted by the 1974 Budget Act was the creation of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). This agency serves as Congress's principal source of information and analysis on the budget, and on spending and revenue legislation. The CBO has a specific mandate to assist the House and Senate Budget Committees and the Spending and Revenue committees. Secondarily, it responds to requests for information from other committees and individual members of Congress. Prior to the creation of CBO, Congress was forced to rely on the president's budget estimates and economic forecasts and the annual analysis of the economy and fiscal policy done by the Joint Economic Committee.
2.
Another measure of budget deficit problems is the imbalance of outlays and receipts as a percentage of the gross national product (GNP). The deficit is declining as a percentage of GNP. For example, outlays were 24.3 percent of the GNP and receipts were 18.1 percent of the GNP in 1983; 23.7 percent outlays to 18.4 percent revenues in 1986; and 22.2 percent outlays to 19.2 percent revenues in 1989. See U.S. Congress, Congressional Budget Office, The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 1991-1995 ( January 1990), appendix E, table E-2, at 123.
3.
There are three kinds of back-door spending techniques: Contract authority permits agencies to enter into contracts that subsequently must be liquidated by appropriations. Borrowing authority allows agencies to spend money they have borrowed from the public or the Treasury. Mandatory entitlements grant eligible individuals and governments the right to receive payments from the national government.

-173-

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