The Interest Group Connection: Electioneering, Lobbying, and Policymaking in Washington

By Paul S. Herrnson; Ronald G. Shaiko et al. | Go to book overview

nation, to understand and deal with a rapidly changing world" ( Lake et al. 1995, 18).

Finally, these findings raise both methodological and conceptual questions about the domestic politics of foreign affairs for analysts who want to understand better lobbying the White House and other executive agencies. Questions of causality, for example, are difficult here as in any arena of political life. We cannot conclude with certainty which White House or State Department actions were prompted by lobbying or public engagement meetings with outside groups. One would need to develop more detailed case studies of possible influence and impact. For example the twists and turns on Haiti repatriation policy offer fruitful material to trace the impact of such groups as Trans Africa and the hunger strike of its leader, Randall Robinson, on policy outcomes.

There is also interesting work under way on the intersection between public attitudes toward foreign affairs, the behavior of politicians, and policy outcomes ( Kull 1995; Rosner 1995). Beyond research strategies for case studies, questions of methods and models are also relevant here. Are our old pluralist, domestic-oriented models still sufficient in the light of the trends toward greater "intermestic" politics and lobbying? Are our current models sufficiently developed to analyze effectively the domestic politics of foreign policy, or will they need to be adjusted? What is the threshold between the old politics of foreign policy, and the new? What measurable indicators can be selected to show that we have reached a qualitatively different form or intensity of the domestic politics of foreign policy? These are issues that analysts of the domestic politics of foreign affairs should tackle seriously.


Notes
1.
This chapter draws on the author's experience as a staff member on the National Security Council in the Clinton administration from 1993 through 1994 working on global and multilateral issues.
2.
The origins of the Office of Public Liaison under Gerald Ford, and its subsequent growth, are described by Schlozman and Tierney ( 1986), Peterson ( 1990, 326-27), and Pika ( 1991).
3.
Larmon Wilson points out the international and external approach of the Carter administration on human rights, the former involving "the bureaucratic struggle for influence among competing interests within the executive branch and between it and the legislative branch . . . [and] the latter . . . a human rights constituency outside the government that came to the fore in support of President Carter's commitment to human rights" (Wilson 1983, 191).
4.
Larmon Wilson reports that as "the Carter White House worked to balance the commitment to human rights with other policy considerations, their

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