The Government of China (1644-1911)

By Pao Chao Hsieh | Go to book overview
Save to active project


Prior to the commencement of commercial relations with the West, China had no foreign relations in the sense of diplomatic negotiations between two sovereign states dealing with each other on equal footing. Hence, up to 1840, during three quarters of the life of the Manchu Dynasty, the röle of China was to conquer, impose conditions, exact tribute, civilize, then neglect, reconquer, re-civilize and finally re-exact the same tributes again and again. History tells of the conquest, the rebellion, the imposition of tributes, etc., but once the tributes were sent, the duties of the dependencies were performed. The payments of tributes by the dependencies were exactly like the payments of taxes by the provinces, the only bond between them and Peking, the sole standard of measurement of the loyalty of the subordinate to the central government. Without a description of the reception of tributes, the kind of foreign relations China conducted for almost two hundred years during the Manchu Regime, a treatment of the Tsing diplomatic relations is not complete. This very short sketch of China's relations with outside countries in the pre-communication period, however, should not impress foreign readers as part and parcel of China's diplomatic history, although in this chapter it is dealt with.

The list of vassal states consisted of Korea, Liu Kin Islands, Burmah, Indo-China, Siam, Sumatra, etc. All these were conquered by China either by arms or otherwise. The regulations of tribute -- payments, as to the amount of tribute, the number and rank of the bearers1 and the roads

Strangely enough, by process of voluntary imitation, most of the vassal states had about the same system of government as the Manchu Government, or, at least, they learned enough of the Tsing system to make it believed, in the tribute payments, that the Tsing system had been adopted.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Government of China (1644-1911)


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 414

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?