In 1997 the PS claimed 111,000 registered members, and the Socialists
accounted for 119 (out of 388) mayors of towns with more than 20,000 inhabitants (of which 70 had more than 100,000).
On the official roles of his two brothers, his two sons, his sister, and various cousins, see
Cole 1994, 107-11.
In the European elections of 1994, Mitterrand was said to have supported Bernard Tapie, head of the Left Radical ticket, which cut deeply into the vote for
the Socialist slate headed by Rocard.
Toward the end of his presidency, there were widely circulated revelations
about his daughter, born to his mistress.
Poll of 24-26 January 1995 and 12-13 February 1996, in
SOFRES 1996, 318-19.
For example, his failure to prevent the Gulf War; to insert France as a partner with Washington in Arab-Israeli negotiations; to arrest the reunification of Germany; to stop the disintegration of Yugoslavia; and to match Germany's
investments in the ex-Communist countries of Eastern Europe.
Jospin's loyalty to his friends and associates was said to work to his detriment on occasion. He has continued to support Jean-Marc Ayrault, the chairman
of the PS parliamentary group, despite Ayrault's reputed ineffectiveness.
On the evolution of that relationship, see
Jérôme 1997, 125-
Chevènement, a founder and leader of the Franco-Iraqi Friendship Society, had been a supporter of Saddam Hussein, whom he considered a secularist
(and therefore "progressive") Arab leader.
That strategy was to produce certain problems; for instance, when Dominique Voynet was offered a cabinet position, she proposed other names, because the
abandonment of her Assembly mandate (required under the incompatibility clause
[Art. 231), would have meant relinquishing it to her PS alternate and thus result in
the loss of a crucial parliamentary seat for the Green party that she headed. Ultimately she acceded to the importunings of Jospin, who wanted a known personality
as minister of the environment.
So named after Charles Pasqua, the Gaullist minister of the interior in 1995, and Jean-Louis Debré, who succeeded him in 1997.