When Women Lead: Integrative Leadership in State Legislatures

By Cindy Simon Rosenthal | Go to book overview

or the organization of legislatures, three possible explanations might be offered. First, if leadership norms are essentially norms defined by a predominantly male culture or by historically male institutions, these data may be explained as Stivers suggests: Women face more pressure than men to adapt, modify, or conform their styles to the dominant norms. Because institutional conditions of professionalism and the presence or absence of women and women's power vary, women respond to more complex and conflicting pressures, which in turn leads to greater variability of leadership styles.

By focusing on the smaller variability in men's scores, a second explanation might be offered: Perhaps institutional and cultural norms provide more constraints on men's leadership behavior than on women's behaviors. In an institution or organizational role that is historically male, it might be the case that organizational conformity exerts greater pressure on men. To be sure, women face the same institutional norms, but perhaps because they are pioneers in a sense, they are in effect freer to set their own course. Contrary to the findings of the authors of Breaking the Glass Ceiling, it may be the men in legislatures, rather than the women, who must conform to a narrow band of acceptable leadership behaviors. 70

A third explanation might be that legislatures are different from other organizations and thus findings from other organizations are not always applicable. Leadership in public organizations tends to flow to those who embody the norms and values of the organization. Legislatures differ from other organizations in terms of the higher turnover of members and a less hierarchical structure that recognizes the presumptive equality of each member. Instability and greater equality might negate the powerful socializing norms evident in other organizations. Because legislatures have less stable organizational norms, different styles of leadership brought by women may offer new possibilities for influence and change.


Conclusion

This analysis underscores the centrality of gender as a defining element of leadership style. Gender shows its impact in three ways. First, sex is a significant predictor of aspects of integrative leadership behavior even when controlling for different situational variables. The differences are not biological but presumably result from different life experiences and socialization. Second, and just as important, gender manifests itself in feminine and masculine personality traits and, therefore, demonstrates a significant influence on leadership styles. Third, gender shows its influence as an organizational phenomenon when we specify the effects of more women in a legislature or more power held by women in a legislature.

Integrative leadership behaviors and motivations are also quite variable given the demands of place, institution, and time. Contextual circumstances matter. Although aggregate-level analysis cannot begin to reveal or fully ex

-94-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
When Women Lead: Integrative Leadership in State Legislatures
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Tojim v
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • List of Figures and Tables xiii
  • 1 3
  • 2 - Gender, Leadership, and Legislatures: Theoretical Roots 18
  • Conclusion 31
  • 3 - The Origins of Different Committee Styles 32
  • Conclusion 51
  • 4 - The Components of Integrative Leadership: Motivation, Behavior, and Style 54
  • Conclusion 75
  • 5 - The Constraints of Place on Leadership 77
  • Conclusion 94
  • 6 - Oklahoma: Leadership in No-Woman's Land 96
  • Conclusion 115
  • 7 - Ohio: Gender Power in a Time of Leadership Transition 117
  • Conclusion 135
  • 8 - Colorado: Defining the Standards of Leadership 137
  • Conclusion 158
  • 9 - A Vision of Integrative Leadership 159
  • Appendix: Methodology 168
  • Notes 181
  • References 219
  • Index 233
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 242

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.