officials indicate that workers experience considerable mobility within a job family and little mobility across job families. For each family, we identified the following career paths (ordered from entry level to highest ranking within each category), based upon the results of our employee survey.
Technical : engineering administrator, facilities technician, systems technician/communication technician. Within this job family we identified two separate paths, Technician 1 and Technician 2, distinguished mainly by the highest job level achieved by different workers in each path.
Customer service : operator, customer associate, maintenance administrator, service representative (Clerical 1).
Administrative : reports associate, data specialist, operations administrator, data administrator, computer operator, staff associate (Clerical 2).
Using responses from our employee survey, we identified the average age at each job title from the CommEx 1992 union contract. Pay within a job title also varies with tenure in that position: earnings can rise a step every six months, up to a specified maximum within that job title.
Data sources . The standard career ladders at Agile Auto and Star Electronics were calculated from the pay charts provided by the companies.
Career-ladder estimations . Interviews with company and union officials gave us information regarding at which point employees (by gender and education) began on a pay chart, how quickly they moved up the chart in terms of years at each job grade, and when they were expected to reach management (and thus were no longer on the union pay chart). The speed of promotion depended on tenure, on performance ratings, and on the company performance scale.
At Star Electronics, female workers remain at the same grade, which has four steps. Agile Auto does not have regular female workers.
The standard career ladders at CommSun could not be calculated because we were unable to obtain the pay chart.