The Gothic World, 1100-1600: A Survey of Architecture and Art

By John Harvey | Go to book overview

CHAPTER
VIII
National Gothic

THE Gothic civilization of western Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was international. The dissimilarities between the various countries of Europe were mainly due to the varying extent to which they had acquired the new spirit, and forsaken the outlook of the Romanesque age. Owing to the near-monopoly of higher education possessed by Paris, the demands of art patrons tended to be standardized, wherever the patrons happened to find themselves. At first, lay craftsmen from France: Normans, Angevins, Picards, and Frenchmen in the strict sense, were imported by other countries to carry out work for which their home craftsmen were unfitted. But this stage began to pass away in England by the middle of the twelfth century, though it continued sporadically elsewhere until the fourteenth. From the mid-thirteenth century, Germany was becoming artistically independent, and so was Spain. Central and eastern Europe began to borrow from Germany rather than from France; so did the area of Germanic colonization towards the head of the Baltic. Scandinavia and Scotland were ready to accept help from France, Flanders, or Germany until the end of the Middle Ages.

At the centre of affairs, and speaking geographically that includes France, England, Flanders, Germany, and northern Spain, the international era was passing away by 1300. Vernacular languages had emerged, first Provengal, then French, then English, then Italian, German and Spanish. The idea of separate nations, each with its own government within a distinct ring-fence, and each marked by its own language, had displaced the theoretical comity of Christendom under the rule of the Pope and using the Latin tongue. Some nations became organized much earlier than others. The first to reach unity was England, and England remained until nearly the end of the Gothic age the sole example of a self-supporting as well as self-contained structure. France, though self-supporting culturally, only achieved union about 1500. Christian Spain became united at about the same date, but never succeeded in absorbing Portugal. Throughout the Middle Ages the Peninsula (apart from the Moslem South) must be considered as the three separate states, Castile, Aragon, and Portugal. Italy likewise was threefold: the Imperial North; the Papal centre; and the Angevin and Aragonese South, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies of a later age.

Hungary, surrounded by mountains as England by the sea, soon developed a self-contained structure. But its changes of dynasty and fluctuating political boundaries tended to make it dependent upon French, German and Italian artists. By the fifteenth century, as we have seen, its lodges of masons were under the jurisdiction of the Master at St. Stephen's, Vienna, and he under the final control of Strassburg. From Alsace in the west to the Carpathians, and from Trent in the south up to Linköping in Sweden, German masters were supreme in the later Gothic age, and they also carried out important work in Spain. Within this Germanic area, influenced by it, but to a considerable degree independent, were the Slavonic Kingdoms of Bohemia and Poland. Thus, apart from the minor local styles, we may count for the latter part of the Gothic age seven ,main regions, divided into not less than eighteen nations or provinces.* This excludes Italy

____________________
*
Britain: England; Ireland; Scotland; France: Northern; Midi; Spain: Aragon; Castile; Portugal; Flanders: Belgium; Holland; Germany: Central; North-Eastern with the Baltic settlements; South-Eastern with Hungary; Slavonic Kingdoms: Bohemia; Poland with Lithuania; Scandinavia: Denmark; Norway; Sweden.

-91-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Gothic World, 1100-1600: A Survey of Architecture and Art
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 160

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.