plicable -- just some more of the basic postulated correlations in science. But I can think of only one or two such, compared with the embarras des richesses psychophysical dualism yields. This is contrary to the spirit of scientific economy and yet apparently inescapable. There is just one ray of hope here. The correlations are not between two independently identifiable properties, a fact recognized in the old "Perhaps when you see green, you see what I see when I see red" puzzle. I believe this ray of hope actually sheds enough light to get us out of the dualistic darkness and into the (dualistic) light. Similarly, I think we can demonstrate the truth of interactionism as an answer to the first question -- which kind of dualism should we adopt. But I only think this: I have not yet found or constructed such a proof.

To conclude then, let me remind you of a development in the history of biology of great importance to us. For a long time there was a popular school of theoretical biology -- it still has its supporters -- the entelechists, which maintained that purposive behavior in organisms clearly demonstrated the falsehood of mechanism. This was simply a logical error, but it had serious scientific and social consequences for the entelechists. Scientifically, it misled them into fruitless theorizing about élan vital etc.; sociologically, it made them the reactionaries of the continuing scientific revolution in biology -- they became the old men, the foes of progress. We cannot afford those consequences. At the very least we should recognize the primacy of the facts about ESP phenomena over any metaphysical framework commitments we may have, and their compatibility with several alternative frameworks. It is particularly tempting for the worker in an unpopular field to see the prevalent ideology of the conventional scientist as culpable for the unpopularity and the criticisms; and he may be supported in this view by the conventional scientist. Both are usually, and in the present case definitely, incorrect.

Thus I believe we face a double danger; over the evidence and over the interpretation of the evidence. If we do not exhibit a willingness to redo old work and rethink old thoughts I am afraid we shall find that the processes of evaporation and absorption will remove our subject matter.


NOTES
1.
An address delivered at the fourth annual meeting of the Parapsychological Association, Sept. 8, 1961.
2.
[Culminating, in: ESR: A Scientific Evaluation, by C. E. M. Hansel ( New York: Scribner's, 1966). -- Ed.]

-399-

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Philosophy and Parapsychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 7
  • Preface 13
  • Philosophy & Parapsychology 17
  • Notes 36
  • Section I - Parapsychology and Philosophy 41
  • The Relevance of Psychical Research to Philosophy 43
  • Symposium: is Psychical Research Relevant to Philosophy? 64
  • Notes 108
  • Review of Kneale, Robinson, and Mundle Symposium 110
  • Notes 116
  • The Science of Nonphysical Nature 117
  • The Philosophical Importance of "Psychic Phenomena" 128
  • Notes 141
  • Section II - The Argument from the Posselbility of Fraud 143
  • Science and the Supernatural 145
  • On "Science and the Supernatural" 172
  • Notes 177
  • Comments on "Science and the Supernatural" 178
  • Notes 186
  • Compatibility of Science and Esp 187
  • Probability, Logic, and Esp 191
  • Where is the Definitive Experiment? 196
  • Notes 200
  • The Experiment Should Fit the Hypothesis 202
  • Notes 204
  • Section III - Conceptual Issues in Parapsychology 205
  • Describing and Explaining 207
  • Notes 225
  • References 226
  • On the Meaning of 'Paranormal' 227
  • Notes 244
  • Notes on Guessing 245
  • Notes 254
  • Conceptualizations of Experimental Clairvoyance 255
  • Notes 262
  • Parapsychology Revisited: Laws, Miracles, and Repeatability 263
  • The Problem of Repeatability in Psychical Research 270
  • Notes 283
  • Section IV - Precognition and Its Problems 285
  • The Philosophical Implications of Foreknowledge 287
  • The Causal Objection to Precognition 313
  • Does the Concept of Precognition Make Sense? 327
  • Notes 340
  • Mundle, Broad, Ducasse and the Precognition Problem 341
  • Notes 348
  • Section V - Parapsychology and the Philosophy of Mind 351
  • Explaining the Paranormal, with Epilogue - 1977 353
  • Parapsychology and Human Nature 371
  • Notes 386
  • New Frontiers of the Brain 387
  • Notes 399
  • Central-State Materialism and Parapsychology 401
  • Notes 404
  • Section VI - Historical Postscript 405
  • Final Impressions of a Psychical Researcher 407
  • Bibliography 423
  • Contributors 451
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