In general, and for reasons already discussed, it would seem that American patterns of mass education will provide a larger return in a backward area for the same amount of money spent than will the more exclusive British patterns.1 In the two metropolitan countries relatively complete use is made by the average citizen of the great scientific and other discoveries already made. The universities can thus properly regard the acquisition of new knowledge as one of their most important responsibilities. In backward areas, however, the first and by far the most urgent problem, from the primary school to the university, must be the dissemination and adaptation of existing knowledge. This is well understood in Puerto Rico. In the British territories, however, there is a tendency to cling to earlier patterns of development, once successful in societies much farther advanced than that of the B.W.I. There is, further, a difference in attitude towards education. Thus, while Puerto Ricans have come to believe with passionate conviction that unless a reasonably good education can be provided for all their children the economy of the island can never expand and the standard of living can never be raised, the peoples of the British islands tend to regard a good education for all the children as a luxury which poverty unfortunately precludes.
The argument as to whether wealth must precede education or education wealth may be, in itself, largely academic, but it is clearly of great importance that, at every stage, full value should be obtained for money spent. The concept of value for money spent should not, however, be given too narrow an interpretation. Excessive preoccupation with immediate and material returns for funds devoted to education is apt to stultify what is, in the last analysis, the ultimate aim of all development, namely to enrich the lives of the human beings concerned. For instance, to place all of the emphasis on technical education to the virtual exclusion of the arts is to make the elementary mistake of supposing that a fine house ensures the happiness of those who live in it. If the level of living in the West Indies is to be raised, provision must be made for the artists, the writers and the poets of the area,2 as well as for____________________