William Henry Trescot, quoted in Rosengarten, Tombee, 139.
See for example Edward Pessen, "How Different from Each Other Were the
Antebellum North and South?" American
Historical Review 85 ( 1980): 1119-49.
I have explored this theme somewhat further in a hitherto unpublished
paper on "Southern Nationalism and
The early champion of the
yeoman-democracy thesis was
Frank L. Owsley
; see his Plain Folk of the Old South
( Baton Rouge, La., 1949). Randolph B. Campbell
, "Planters and Plain Folks: The
Social Structure of the Antebellum
John B. Boles and
Evelyn T. Nolen
, eds., Interpreting Southern History:
Historiographical Essays in Honor of Sanford W. Higginbotham ( Baton Rouge, La., 1987), 48-77, provides an excellent review of the literature on the subject.
The evolution of
may be traced through many of his writings, including The Political Economy of
Slavery; In Red and Black; The World the
Slaveholders Made; and in numerous essays.
George M. Fredrickson, The Black
Image in the White Mind: The Debate on
Afro-American Character and Destiny,
1817-1914 ( New York, 1971), 61-8, 93-
6. Fredrickson attributes the term "herrenvolk democracy" to Pierre L. van den Berghe
, Race and Racism: A Comparative
Perspective ( New York, 1967).
Oakes, The Ruling Race, especially
Forrest McDonald and
, "The Antebellum Southern
Herdsman: A Reinterpretation", Journal of
Southern History 41 ( 1975): 147-66.
Steven A. Channing, Crisis of Fear:
Secession in South Carolina ( New York, 1970); William L. Barney, The Road to
Secession: A New Perspective on the Old
South ( New York, 1972); Michael P. Johnson
, Toward a Patriarchal Republic:
The Secession of Georgia ( Baton Rouge, La., 1977); J. Mills Thornton, Politics and
Power in a Slave Society: Alabama, 1800-
1860 ( Baton Rouge, La., 1978); Kenneth S. Greenberg
, Masters and Statesmen: The
Political Culture of American Slavery ( Baltimore, 1985); Laurence Shore, Southern
Capitalists: The Ideological Leadership of
an Elite, 1832-1885 ( Chapel Hill, N.C., 1986); Bruce Collins, White Society in the
Antebellum South ( London, 1985). Collins, in particular, provides a valuable
synthesis of recent work, spiced by his
own personal reflections.
Steven Hahn, The Roots of Southern
Populism: Yeoman Farmers and the Transformation of the Georgia Up-Country,
1850-1890 ( New York, 1983); Harris, Plain Folk and Gentry in a Slave Society; Randolph B. Campbell, A Southern Community in Crisis: Harrison County, Texas,
1850-1880 ( Austin, Tx., 1983); Randolph B. Campbell
Richard G. Lowe, Wealth
and Power in Antebellum Texas (College
Station, Tx., 1977). See also some of the
essays in Orville V. Burton and
Robert C. McMath
, eds., Class, Conflict and Consensus: Antebellum Southern Community
Studies ( Westport, Ct., 1982).
Randolph B. Campbell, "Planters
and Plain Folks: The Social Structure of
the Antebellum South", in
Boles and Nolen, eds., Interpreting Southern History, 65. See also Campbell, A Southern Community in Crisis.
Olsen, "Historians and the Extent
of Slaveownership in the Southern United
See Collins, White Society in the
Antebellum South, 83-97, for a helpful
discussion of the mobility and fluidity of
Steven Hahn, "The Yeomanry of
the Nonplantation South: Upper Piedmont Georgia, 1850-1860" in
Burton and McMath, eds., Class, Conflict and