For one recent example see Harris, Plain Folk and Gentry in a Slave
For a spirited account of the
mounting anxieties of slaveholders on the
eve of secession and Civil War, see Oakes, The Ruling Race, 227-42.
Channing, Crisis of Fear, provides
a vivid account of this process in South
Carolina. (Cf. chapter 5, note 18.) For Georgia, there is an equally good account
in Clarence L. Mohr, On the Threshold of
Freedom: Masters and Slaves in Civil War
Georgia ( Athens, Ga., 1986), 3-50.
Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom,
xv. The discussion in the following paragraphs of slavery within the Confederacy
relies heavily on Mohr's excellent study of Georgia. See also James H. Brewer, The
Confederate Negro: Virginia's Craftsmen
and Military Laborers, 1861-1865
( Durham, N.C., 1969). There is still a
great deal of useful information to be
found in the much older study by Bell I. Wiley
, Southern Negroes, 1861-1865
( New Haven, 1938).
Frank L. Owsley, State Rights in the
Confederacy ( Chicago, 1925), 264-5.
Harris, Plain Folk and Gentry in a
Slave Society, 167-70. The Linton
Stephens quotation appears on page 167.
Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom, 118; C. Peter Ripley, Slaves and Freedmen
in Civil War Louisiana ( Baton Rouge, La., 1976), 13.
Robert F. Durden, The Gray and
the Black: The Confederate Debate on
Emancipation ( Baton Rouge, La., 1972), 184.
There is a classic study of the
situation in the South Carolina sea islands
by Willie Lee Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment ( Indianapolis, 1964); Louisiana is well
covered in Ripley, Slaves and Freedmen.
Fields, Slavery and Freedom on the
Middle Ground, 90-130.
On the policy of the federal government and its implementation, see La- Wanda Cox
, Lincoln and Black Freedom: A
Study in Presidential Leadership ( Columbia, S.C., 1981), and Louis S. Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman: Federal
Policy Toward Southern Blacks, 1861-
1865 ( Westport, Ct., 1973).
The description of first responses
to liberation in this and following paragraphs relies heavily on Leon F. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath
of Slavery ( New York, 1979). Litwack
provided a briefer statement of some of
the main themes of his major study in his
"Free at Last," in Tamara K. Hareven, ed., Anonymous Americans: Explorations in
Nineteenth-Century Social History ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971), 131-71.
Ripley, Slaves and Freedmen, 58,
and, more generally, 37-9, 43-68.
Gerteis, From Contraband to
Freedman; Lawrence N. Powell, New Masters: Northern Planters During the Civil
War and Reconstruction ( New Haven, 1980).
Ripley, Slaves and Freedmen, 42.
Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 64-103. The standard work on black
soldiers in the Union army is Dudley T. Cornish
, The Sable Arm: Negro Troops in
the Union Army, 1861-1865 ( New York, 1966).
Rose, Slavery and Freedom, 94.
19. Ibid., 110-111. There is no more
sensitive or perceptive brief account of
the immediate impact of emancipation
upon slaves and their owners than in two
of the essays in Slavery and Freedom:
" Masters without Slaves," 73-89, and
" Blacks without Masters: Protagonists and
Eugene Genovese and Herbert Gutman are two other major
historians of slavery who have made very
effective use of evidence drawn from the
time of emancipation. 20.
Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 162.
Rose, Slavery and Freedom,94.