When the first European-Americans arrived in present-day South Carolina, they encountered the original residents, who represented at least three main language groups. The Iroquois, Cherokees, Catawbans, and the Muskhogean were the primary groups.
As described in the entry on multicultural education programs in Georgia, the Cherokees first encountered Europeans who were members of Hernando de Soto's entourage in 1540. At that time they moved into the Georgia and South Carolina regions. By 1759, relations between the European settlers and the original Cherokee residents of the area had deteriorated to the extent that Governor Henry Lyttleton of South Carolina marched into the Native-American portion of the state in order to retaliate for a Cherokee act of revenge against frontier farmers, who had killed about 30 Cherokee warriors.
In 1760, a new governor, William Bull, sent the South Carolina militia and royal troops into Cherokee territory, destroying towns and agricultural fields, and defeating the Cherokees. One year later a peace accord with the Cherokees was agreed upon, but further hostilities broke out in 1776. A year later, the Cherokees surrendered and all of their lands east of the Blue Ridge Mountains were given to the European settlers.
The Catawbans, sometimes referred to as Katapu, grew squash, beans, and corn, and were adept in arts and crafts endeavors such as basket weaving am pottery making. After first encountering Spanish explorers, they established cordial relations with English immigrants and even sided with them against other Native-American Tribes.
The tribe was often involved in various encounters with the Iroquois, Cherokee, and Shawnee. Unfortunately, the tribe encountered problems with smallpox for about forty years during the mid-1700s, and their former prominence was never regained. After they were duped into giving their South Carolina land away, they were provided with reservation lands in York County, South Carolina.
Among the early Europeans in the South Carolina areas were the French and Spanish, who both established short-lived settlements on Parris Island in the last half of the sixteenth century. However, neither nation took advantage of these early inroads, leaving the area open to the English. Charles I granted Carolina lands to Charles Heath, whose unsuccessful attempts to colonize resulted in the ultimate withdrawal of the lands by the English king.
However, Charles II followed up on this notion, granting Carolina lands to eight proprietors, who commenced colonizing the areas comprising the present- day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Carolina's original constitution was drafted by England's John Locke. However, it proved to be impractical and was abandoned about 1690.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Multicultural Education in the U.S.:A Guide to Policies and Programs in the 50 States. Contributors: Bruce M. Mitchell - Author, Robert E. Salsbury - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 2000. Page number: 219.
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